Network
Launch Date
Consensus
Note
Sepolia
Oct 2021
PoW
Like-for-like representation of Ethereum
Görli
Jan 2019
PoA
Proof-of-Authority
Kiln
Mar 2022
PoS
Post-Merge (for ETH2), shadow fork of the mainnet
Kintsugi
Dec 2021
PoS
DEPRECATED, use Kiln; post-Merge (for ETH2)
Ropsten
Nov 2016
PoW
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia; the Merge to happen on Jun 8, 2022
Rinkeby
Apr 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Görli and Görli Faucet
Kovan
Mar 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia or Görli
List of active and deprecated Ethereum testnets, including Kintsugi.
Features
Optimistic rollup 
ZK-rollup 
Proof
Uses fraud proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Uses validity (zero-knowledge) proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Capital efficiency
Requires waiting through a 1-week delay (dispute period) before withdrawing funds. 
Users can withdraw funds immediately because validity proofs provide incontrovertible evidence of the authenticity of off-chain transactions. 
Data compression
Publishes full transaction data as calldata to Ethereum Mainnet, which increases rollup costs. 
Doesn't need to publish transaction data on Ethereum because ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs already guarantee the accuracy of the rollup state. 
EVM compatibility
Uses a simulation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which allows it to run arbitrary logic and support smart contracts. 
Doesn't widely support EVM computation, although a few EVM-compatible ZK-rollups have appeared. 
Rollup costs
Reduces costs since it publishes minimal data on Ethereum and doesn't have to post proofs for transactions, except in special circumstances. 
Faces higher overhead from costs involved in generating and verifying proofs for every transaction block. ZK proofs require specialized, expensive hardware to create and have high on-chain verification costs. 
Trust assumptions
Doesn't require a trusted setup. 
Requires a trusted setup to work. 
Liveness requirements
Verifiers are needed to keep tabs on the actual rollup state and the one referenced in the state root to detect fraud. 
Users don't need someone to watch the L2 chain to detect fraud. 
Security properties 
Relies on cryptoeconomic incentives to assure users of rollup security. 
Relies on cryptographic guarantees for security. 
Start building
on Alchemy.
Sign up for free
Start building on Optimism.
Sign up for free
Start building on Arbitrum.
Sign up for free
Start building on Ethereum.
Sign up for free
Start building on Polygon.
Sign up for free
Start building on Starknet.
Sign up for free
Start building on Flow.
Sign up for free
kiln faucet
Get free Kiln ETH.
Start building today
Goerli faucet
Get free Goerli ETH.
Start building today
mumbai faucet
Get free Mumbai Matic.
Start building today
rinkeby faucet
Get free Rinkeby
ETH.
Start building today
Start building on Ethereum.
Get started for free
Start building on Ethereum.
Get started for free
Start building on Flow.
Get started for free
Start building on Polygon.
Get started for free
Start building on Starknet.
Get started for free
Start building on Optimism.
Get started for free
Start building on Solana.
Get started for free
Start building on Solana.
Sign up for beta access
Start building on Solana.
Join the waitlist
Arbitrum logo
Start building on Arbitrum.
Get started for free
Learn
Solidity at
Alchemy
University
Get started today
curl 
https://release.solana.com/v1.10.32/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe 
--output 
C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe 
--create-dirs
NFTs
DYNAMIC NFT OVERVIEW

What is a dynamic NFT (dNFT)?

What They Are and How to Make One
Last Updated:
August 11, 2022

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have generated billions in sales for things like digital art, games, sports cards, music and more. When most people think of NFTs, they often think of a static image, video or multimedia asset.

But, dynamic NFTs (dNFTs) are growing in prominence. In this post, we will describe what dynamic NFTs are, as well as actual and potential dNFT use cases, and how those desiring to build dNFTs can use oracles to access trust-minimized off-chain data and computation. 

What is a dynamic NFT?

A dynamic NFT is a non-fungible token that can change based on certain circumstances. Due to their ability to adapt and change in response to external events and data, dNFTs are expanding the design space that NFTs can handle.

At the moment, the most common use of NFTs is in digital art where an artist creates a token that represents a digital work of art, such as a 1-of-1 NFT, and a collector can buy this token to prove ownership. When new NFTs are made, the tokenIDs don't change.

Remember that you don't have to give any information about an NFT, like its description, picture, or other features. An NFT is, at its most basic, a movable token with a unique identifier called a tokenID.

This static NFT model helps digital artists all over the world in a number of ways. Before, digital artists couldn't stop or even track the illegal spread of their original works of art because there was no way to tell the difference between any two files. This meant that no single original file could be kept.

For the first time in the history of the Internet, creators can sell digital art to their fans if they can prove ownership. Fans can also prove ownership of an original piece of art, even if the picture underneath it is copied.

Static NFTs are now used in most generative NFT art projects, play-to-earn games, and digital collectibles. In addition to these use cases, they offer a unique value proposition for the digitization of real-world assets like real estate papers, patents, and other unique identifiers.

But this strategy is limited by the fact that static NFTs can't be changed once they are put on a blockchain and their metadata can't be changed. Some examples of why someone would want an NFT that requires data updates include: 

  • Tokenizing real-world assets
  • Making video games that progress
  • Building fantasy sports leagues on the blockchain
  • And much, much more.

Dynamic NFTs let NFTs keep their unique IDs while also getting updated information.

A dynamic NFT is one that can change in response to something outside of it. Change in a dNFT usually means that a smart contract has changed the metadata. This is possible because the NFT smart contract has automatic updates that tell the underlying NFT when and how its information should change.

How does a dynamic NFT (dNFT) work?

The enabling technology is smart contracts, which allow the growth of dynamic NFTs by letting them use both off-chain and on-chain calculations. When a user asks for an NFT, smart contracts look at both off-chain and on-chain data to decide what to tell the user.

  1. First, an NFT request is sent to a smart contract
  2. The smart contract looks for information on the blockchain
  3. The contract asks an oracle for information that is not on the blockchain
  4. The smart contract then sends back one or two pieces of media

This means that smart contracts make it possible for NFTs to be changed over time. So, smart contracts use both off-chain and on-chain data to figure out if a non-fungible token should change and, if it should, update the metadata of a dynamic NFT.

How are oracles used in Dynamic NFTs?

Aside from metadata updates, dynamic features can occur. For example, dynamic NFTs can be made when certain things happen, like when a hidden location in an augmented reality app is found. 

In addition to information, dNFTs may have "hidden features" that become clear when the user interacts with them. Tokens like NFTs that are completely unique and can be set up in different ways can be programmed in an endless number of ways.

Most dNFTs, though, must include some kind of metadata change so that users who aren't tech-savvy can "see" the changes. A part of dNFT design that is often overlooked is how to get the data and features needed to make a secure, fair, and automated dNFT process.

External variables, both on and off the chain, can change dNFT metadata in more than one way. Blockchains, on the other hand, can't access or process data that isn't part of the chain.

Oracles gets around these problems by offering a variety of off-chain data and computing services that can be used to trigger dNFT upgrades. Oracles act as a bridge between the two worlds. It makes it possible to make dNFT processes that are automated, decentralized, and even ‚Äúfun‚ÄĚ as the dNFT ecosystem grows and NFTs become more connected to the real world.

How to Create a Dynamic NFT (Tutorial)

Before you start making your own dynamic NFTs, choose your item, its variables, and which chain you want to use.

For example, you may want to choose an Ethereum NFT that changes pictures based on the price of ETH. When the price of ETH is going up, the NFT image is a bull, and when the price of ETH is going down, the NFT image is a bear.

Once you have your plan, it's time to set up your developer environment.

Tools for Creating a dNFT

To get started, make sure you have the required tools:  

Once you're environment are setup, here are the basic steps to building a dNFT with Alchemy.

Steps to Create a Dynamic NFT

This is a brief outline of Alchemy's dynamic NFT tutorial that changes it's design based on market prices.

  1. Set up the ERC721 token 
  2. Upload the NFT image links in the IPFS URIs 
  3. Complete a compile check
  4. Make the NFT contract ‚ÄúKeepers Compatible‚Ä̬†
  5. Have the smart contract interact with Chainlink Price feeds that will change the NFT based on your defined variables (in this case, market prices). 
  6. Test your dNFT to see if it is dynamically updating as expected. 
  7. Mint and deploy your dNFT!

This is a simplified version of how to create a dNFT. For the full version, read our step-by-step guide.

Popular Dynamic NFT Examples

LaMelo Ball is a professional basketball player who has released eight different LaMelo Ball NFTs. Each one of his dNFTs keeps track of a different set of his stats, such as rebounds, assists, and points scored, and changes based on his game statistics.

For example, if he gets 10 assists in a game, the NFT could change to a different background color. Based on how well LaMelo keeps doing, dynamic NFT holders can get into unique raffles and get other NFT-only benefits.

One of these eight NFTs, the Gold Change NFT, came with a condition: if LaMelo Ball won Rookie of the Year for the 2021 NBA season, the NFT would be changed. After LaMelo won, the NFT changed into a different image entirely.

Another example is Regenerative Resources (RRC), which is an ecosystem services company whose goal is to turn land that has been damaged into marine environments that can make money.

RRC announced the release of five Short Film NFTs made by well-known artists. The money made from the sales will be used to plant and grow 100 million mangroves through RRC's existing projects. The first thing in each Short Film NFT will be one frame. When an NFT is bought or sold, the short film is shown frame by frame until the NFT holder can see the whole thing.

ALCHEMY SUPERNODE - ETHEREUM NODE API

Scale to any size, without any errors

Alchemy Supernode finally makes it possible to scale blockchain applications without all the headaches. Plus, our legendary support will guide you every step of the way.

Get started for free
Supernode footer
NFTs
DYNAMIC NFT OVERVIEW

What is a dynamic NFT (dNFT)?

What They Are and How to Make One
Last Updated:
August 11, 2022
Don't miss an update
Sign up for our newsletter to get alpha, key insights, and killer resources.
Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have generated billions in sales for things like digital art, games, sports cards, music and more. When most people think of NFTs, they often think of a static image, video or multimedia asset.

But, dynamic NFTs (dNFTs) are growing in prominence. In this post, we will describe what dynamic NFTs are, as well as actual and potential dNFT use cases, and how those desiring to build dNFTs can use oracles to access trust-minimized off-chain data and computation. 

What is a dynamic NFT?

A dynamic NFT is a non-fungible token that can change based on certain circumstances. Due to their ability to adapt and change in response to external events and data, dNFTs are expanding the design space that NFTs can handle.

At the moment, the most common use of NFTs is in digital art where an artist creates a token that represents a digital work of art, such as a 1-of-1 NFT, and a collector can buy this token to prove ownership. When new NFTs are made, the tokenIDs don't change.

Remember that you don't have to give any information about an NFT, like its description, picture, or other features. An NFT is, at its most basic, a movable token with a unique identifier called a tokenID.

This static NFT model helps digital artists all over the world in a number of ways. Before, digital artists couldn't stop or even track the illegal spread of their original works of art because there was no way to tell the difference between any two files. This meant that no single original file could be kept.

For the first time in the history of the Internet, creators can sell digital art to their fans if they can prove ownership. Fans can also prove ownership of an original piece of art, even if the picture underneath it is copied.

Static NFTs are now used in most generative NFT art projects, play-to-earn games, and digital collectibles. In addition to these use cases, they offer a unique value proposition for the digitization of real-world assets like real estate papers, patents, and other unique identifiers.

But this strategy is limited by the fact that static NFTs can't be changed once they are put on a blockchain and their metadata can't be changed. Some examples of why someone would want an NFT that requires data updates include: 

  • Tokenizing real-world assets
  • Making video games that progress
  • Building fantasy sports leagues on the blockchain
  • And much, much more.

Dynamic NFTs let NFTs keep their unique IDs while also getting updated information.

A dynamic NFT is one that can change in response to something outside of it. Change in a dNFT usually means that a smart contract has changed the metadata. This is possible because the NFT smart contract has automatic updates that tell the underlying NFT when and how its information should change.

How does a dynamic NFT (dNFT) work?

The enabling technology is smart contracts, which allow the growth of dynamic NFTs by letting them use both off-chain and on-chain calculations. When a user asks for an NFT, smart contracts look at both off-chain and on-chain data to decide what to tell the user.

  1. First, an NFT request is sent to a smart contract
  2. The smart contract looks for information on the blockchain
  3. The contract asks an oracle for information that is not on the blockchain
  4. The smart contract then sends back one or two pieces of media

This means that smart contracts make it possible for NFTs to be changed over time. So, smart contracts use both off-chain and on-chain data to figure out if a non-fungible token should change and, if it should, update the metadata of a dynamic NFT.

How are oracles used in Dynamic NFTs?

Aside from metadata updates, dynamic features can occur. For example, dynamic NFTs can be made when certain things happen, like when a hidden location in an augmented reality app is found. 

In addition to information, dNFTs may have "hidden features" that become clear when the user interacts with them. Tokens like NFTs that are completely unique and can be set up in different ways can be programmed in an endless number of ways.

Most dNFTs, though, must include some kind of metadata change so that users who aren't tech-savvy can "see" the changes. A part of dNFT design that is often overlooked is how to get the data and features needed to make a secure, fair, and automated dNFT process.

External variables, both on and off the chain, can change dNFT metadata in more than one way. Blockchains, on the other hand, can't access or process data that isn't part of the chain.

Oracles gets around these problems by offering a variety of off-chain data and computing services that can be used to trigger dNFT upgrades. Oracles act as a bridge between the two worlds. It makes it possible to make dNFT processes that are automated, decentralized, and even ‚Äúfun‚ÄĚ as the dNFT ecosystem grows and NFTs become more connected to the real world.

How to Create a Dynamic NFT (Tutorial)

Before you start making your own dynamic NFTs, choose your item, its variables, and which chain you want to use.

For example, you may want to choose an Ethereum NFT that changes pictures based on the price of ETH. When the price of ETH is going up, the NFT image is a bull, and when the price of ETH is going down, the NFT image is a bear.

Once you have your plan, it's time to set up your developer environment.

Tools for Creating a dNFT

To get started, make sure you have the required tools:  

Once you're environment are setup, here are the basic steps to building a dNFT with Alchemy.

Steps to Create a Dynamic NFT

This is a brief outline of Alchemy's dynamic NFT tutorial that changes it's design based on market prices.

  1. Set up the ERC721 token 
  2. Upload the NFT image links in the IPFS URIs 
  3. Complete a compile check
  4. Make the NFT contract ‚ÄúKeepers Compatible‚Ä̬†
  5. Have the smart contract interact with Chainlink Price feeds that will change the NFT based on your defined variables (in this case, market prices). 
  6. Test your dNFT to see if it is dynamically updating as expected. 
  7. Mint and deploy your dNFT!

This is a simplified version of how to create a dNFT. For the full version, read our step-by-step guide.

Popular Dynamic NFT Examples

LaMelo Ball is a professional basketball player who has released eight different LaMelo Ball NFTs. Each one of his dNFTs keeps track of a different set of his stats, such as rebounds, assists, and points scored, and changes based on his game statistics.

For example, if he gets 10 assists in a game, the NFT could change to a different background color. Based on how well LaMelo keeps doing, dynamic NFT holders can get into unique raffles and get other NFT-only benefits.

One of these eight NFTs, the Gold Change NFT, came with a condition: if LaMelo Ball won Rookie of the Year for the 2021 NBA season, the NFT would be changed. After LaMelo won, the NFT changed into a different image entirely.

Another example is Regenerative Resources (RRC), which is an ecosystem services company whose goal is to turn land that has been damaged into marine environments that can make money.

RRC announced the release of five Short Film NFTs made by well-known artists. The money made from the sales will be used to plant and grow 100 million mangroves through RRC's existing projects. The first thing in each Short Film NFT will be one frame. When an NFT is bought or sold, the short film is shown frame by frame until the NFT holder can see the whole thing.

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have generated billions in sales for things like digital art, games, sports cards, music and more. When most people think of NFTs, they often think of a static image, video or multimedia asset.

But, dynamic NFTs (dNFTs) are growing in prominence. In this post, we will describe what dynamic NFTs are, as well as actual and potential dNFT use cases, and how those desiring to build dNFTs can use oracles to access trust-minimized off-chain data and computation. 

What is a dynamic NFT?

A dynamic NFT is a non-fungible token that can change based on certain circumstances. Due to their ability to adapt and change in response to external events and data, dNFTs are expanding the design space that NFTs can handle.

At the moment, the most common use of NFTs is in digital art where an artist creates a token that represents a digital work of art, such as a 1-of-1 NFT, and a collector can buy this token to prove ownership. When new NFTs are made, the tokenIDs don't change.

Remember that you don't have to give any information about an NFT, like its description, picture, or other features. An NFT is, at its most basic, a movable token with a unique identifier called a tokenID.

This static NFT model helps digital artists all over the world in a number of ways. Before, digital artists couldn't stop or even track the illegal spread of their original works of art because there was no way to tell the difference between any two files. This meant that no single original file could be kept.

For the first time in the history of the Internet, creators can sell digital art to their fans if they can prove ownership. Fans can also prove ownership of an original piece of art, even if the picture underneath it is copied.

Static NFTs are now used in most generative NFT art projects, play-to-earn games, and digital collectibles. In addition to these use cases, they offer a unique value proposition for the digitization of real-world assets like real estate papers, patents, and other unique identifiers.

But this strategy is limited by the fact that static NFTs can't be changed once they are put on a blockchain and their metadata can't be changed. Some examples of why someone would want an NFT that requires data updates include: 

  • Tokenizing real-world assets
  • Making video games that progress
  • Building fantasy sports leagues on the blockchain
  • And much, much more.

Dynamic NFTs let NFTs keep their unique IDs while also getting updated information.

A dynamic NFT is one that can change in response to something outside of it. Change in a dNFT usually means that a smart contract has changed the metadata. This is possible because the NFT smart contract has automatic updates that tell the underlying NFT when and how its information should change.

How does a dynamic NFT (dNFT) work?

The enabling technology is smart contracts, which allow the growth of dynamic NFTs by letting them use both off-chain and on-chain calculations. When a user asks for an NFT, smart contracts look at both off-chain and on-chain data to decide what to tell the user.

  1. First, an NFT request is sent to a smart contract
  2. The smart contract looks for information on the blockchain
  3. The contract asks an oracle for information that is not on the blockchain
  4. The smart contract then sends back one or two pieces of media

This means that smart contracts make it possible for NFTs to be changed over time. So, smart contracts use both off-chain and on-chain data to figure out if a non-fungible token should change and, if it should, update the metadata of a dynamic NFT.

How are oracles used in Dynamic NFTs?

Aside from metadata updates, dynamic features can occur. For example, dynamic NFTs can be made when certain things happen, like when a hidden location in an augmented reality app is found. 

In addition to information, dNFTs may have "hidden features" that become clear when the user interacts with them. Tokens like NFTs that are completely unique and can be set up in different ways can be programmed in an endless number of ways.

Most dNFTs, though, must include some kind of metadata change so that users who aren't tech-savvy can "see" the changes. A part of dNFT design that is often overlooked is how to get the data and features needed to make a secure, fair, and automated dNFT process.

External variables, both on and off the chain, can change dNFT metadata in more than one way. Blockchains, on the other hand, can't access or process data that isn't part of the chain.

Oracles gets around these problems by offering a variety of off-chain data and computing services that can be used to trigger dNFT upgrades. Oracles act as a bridge between the two worlds. It makes it possible to make dNFT processes that are automated, decentralized, and even ‚Äúfun‚ÄĚ as the dNFT ecosystem grows and NFTs become more connected to the real world.

How to Create a Dynamic NFT (Tutorial)

Before you start making your own dynamic NFTs, choose your item, its variables, and which chain you want to use.

For example, you may want to choose an Ethereum NFT that changes pictures based on the price of ETH. When the price of ETH is going up, the NFT image is a bull, and when the price of ETH is going down, the NFT image is a bear.

Once you have your plan, it's time to set up your developer environment.

Tools for Creating a dNFT

To get started, make sure you have the required tools:  

Once you're environment are setup, here are the basic steps to building a dNFT with Alchemy.

Steps to Create a Dynamic NFT

This is a brief outline of Alchemy's dynamic NFT tutorial that changes it's design based on market prices.

  1. Set up the ERC721 token 
  2. Upload the NFT image links in the IPFS URIs 
  3. Complete a compile check
  4. Make the NFT contract ‚ÄúKeepers Compatible‚Ä̬†
  5. Have the smart contract interact with Chainlink Price feeds that will change the NFT based on your defined variables (in this case, market prices). 
  6. Test your dNFT to see if it is dynamically updating as expected. 
  7. Mint and deploy your dNFT!

This is a simplified version of how to create a dNFT. For the full version, read our step-by-step guide.

Popular Dynamic NFT Examples

LaMelo Ball is a professional basketball player who has released eight different LaMelo Ball NFTs. Each one of his dNFTs keeps track of a different set of his stats, such as rebounds, assists, and points scored, and changes based on his game statistics.

For example, if he gets 10 assists in a game, the NFT could change to a different background color. Based on how well LaMelo keeps doing, dynamic NFT holders can get into unique raffles and get other NFT-only benefits.

One of these eight NFTs, the Gold Change NFT, came with a condition: if LaMelo Ball won Rookie of the Year for the 2021 NBA season, the NFT would be changed. After LaMelo won, the NFT changed into a different image entirely.

Another example is Regenerative Resources (RRC), which is an ecosystem services company whose goal is to turn land that has been damaged into marine environments that can make money.

RRC announced the release of five Short Film NFTs made by well-known artists. The money made from the sales will be used to plant and grow 100 million mangroves through RRC's existing projects. The first thing in each Short Film NFT will be one frame. When an NFT is bought or sold, the short film is shown frame by frame until the NFT holder can see the whole thing.

Build web3 with Alchemy

Alchemy combines the most powerful web3 developer products and tools with resources, community and legendary support.

Get started for free