Network
Launch Date
Consensus
Note
Sepolia
Oct 2021
PoW
Like-for-like representation of Ethereum
Görli
Jan 2019
PoA
Proof-of-Authority
Kiln
Mar 2022
PoS
Post-Merge (for ETH2), shadow fork of the mainnet
Kintsugi
Dec 2021
PoS
DEPRECATED, use Kiln; post-Merge (for ETH2)
Ropsten
Nov 2016
PoW
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia; the Merge to happen on Jun 8, 2022
Rinkeby
Apr 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Görli and Görli Faucet
Kovan
Mar 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia or Görli
List of active and deprecated Ethereum testnets, including Kintsugi.
Features
Optimistic rollup 
ZK-rollup 
Proof
Uses fraud proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Uses validity (zero-knowledge) proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Capital efficiency
Requires waiting through a 1-week delay (dispute period) before withdrawing funds. 
Users can withdraw funds immediately because validity proofs provide incontrovertible evidence of the authenticity of off-chain transactions. 
Data compression
Publishes full transaction data as calldata to Ethereum Mainnet, which increases rollup costs. 
Doesn't need to publish transaction data on Ethereum because ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs already guarantee the accuracy of the rollup state. 
EVM compatibility
Uses a simulation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which allows it to run arbitrary logic and support smart contracts. 
Doesn't widely support EVM computation, although a few EVM-compatible ZK-rollups have appeared. 
Rollup costs
Reduces costs since it publishes minimal data on Ethereum and doesn't have to post proofs for transactions, except in special circumstances. 
Faces higher overhead from costs involved in generating and verifying proofs for every transaction block. ZK proofs require specialized, expensive hardware to create and have high on-chain verification costs. 
Trust assumptions
Doesn't require a trusted setup. 
Requires a trusted setup to work. 
Liveness requirements
Verifiers are needed to keep tabs on the actual rollup state and the one referenced in the state root to detect fraud. 
Users don't need someone to watch the L2 chain to detect fraud. 
Security properties 
Relies on cryptoeconomic incentives to assure users of rollup security. 
Relies on cryptographic guarantees for security. 
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Infra
PERSONAL RPC ENDPOINT

Private RPC Endpoint: What it is and How to Make One

What it is And How to Make One
Last Updated:
June 21, 2022

RPC nodes provide a link between blockchains and the decentralized applications (dApps) that run on top of them. Web3 wallets have default RPC node providers so users can easily start interacting with web3 applications, however, sometimes these default, public RPC nodes cause problems for everyday users and web3 developers due to slow network speeds, incorrect blockchain data, and unreliable service (uptime).

In this article we’re going to explain why it is a good idea to create a private RPC endpoint, and how to add one to your MetaMask wallet so you can get faster speeds, accurate data, and more reliable service.

In the context of this article, the term “private RPC endpoint” means a personal RPC endpoint that is not publicly available for everyone else to use. We do not mean that the transactions sent through your personal RPC endpoint are private transactions, that they will settle privately, or that they will not appear in the public mempool.

If you are looking to send private transactions, please refer to the Flashbots API.

A private RPC endpoint is an RPC endpoint with a unique URL that only the owner can use to send transactions to the public mempool, providing individuals with a direct connection to a node provider.

Private RPC endpoints enable users to publish transactions through a dedicated endpoint instead of using their wallet’s default, public endpoint which is being used simultaneously by the wallet’s other users.

Using a private RPC endpoint has many benefits including speed, accurate data, more reliable service, and less competition when submitting transactions during periods of high transaction volumes like an exclusive NFT drop.

Here are some of the use cases where traders, developers, and everyday users could benefit from updating their MetaMask wallet from the default RPC endpoint to a personal one:

  • Sending transactions during an exclusive, first-come-first-serve NFT mint
  • Sending transactions to capitalize on time-sensitive arbitrage opportunities
  • Getting reliable service when other node providers experience degraded service during airdrops

There are multiple reasons why web3 users stand to benefit from creating a private RPC endpoint and updating their default web3 wallet settings to send transactions through a personal RPC endpoint.

Alchemy is the leading web3 node infrastructure provider for Ethereum, Polygon, Arbitrum, Optimism, and many more layer 1 and layer 2 blockchains because of their speed (i.e. low latency), data correctness, and reliability (99.99% uptime), compared to other providers like Infura (MetaMask’s default RPC endpoint provider), and Quicknode.

For everyday users it means Alchemy is faster, more accurate, and dependable than alternative providers.

For developers and traders, using Alchemy has many other benefits from their free account including:

  • Webhooks for Ethereum, Polygon, Arbitrum, and Optimism
  • Free archive data
  • Enhanced APIs
  • User-friendly debugging and application monitoring tools
  • A simple-to-use developer dashboard
  • New accounts can be created in a couple minutes

In addition to these benefits, creating a personal RPC endpoint takes just a couple minutes.

We'll use Alchemy to create a personal RPC endpoint. You can create an account for free here.

Step 1 - Create an Alchemy Account

Enter your name, email address, and a password to sign up, or log into your existing account.

Step 2 - Create a New App

After creating a new account, you will be redirected to our dashboard, where we can create a new app by clicking on the Create App button as shown below.

Alchemy dashboard where you can create a new app for a personal RPC endpoint on Ethereum, Polygon, Arbitrum, Optimism, and more.

Next, input the following app information based on the network for which you want to create a private RPC endpoint. 

For the description, you can write anything you want or leave it blank.

Alchemy App Details for a Personal Ethereum RPC Endpoint

  • Name: Private RPC Endpoint - Ethereum (Mainnet)
  • Chain: Ethereum
  • Network: Mainnet

Alchemy App Details for a Personal Polygon RPC Endpoint

  • Name: Private RPC Endpoint - Polygon (Mainnet)
  • Chain: Polygon
  • Network: Mainnet

Alchemy App Details for a Personal Arbitrum RPC Endpoint

  • Name: Private RPC Endpoint - Arbitrum (Mainnet)
  • Chain: Arbitrum
  • Network: Mainnet

Alchemy App Details for a Personal Optimism RPC Endpoint

  • Name: Private RPC Endpoint - Optimism (Mainnet)
  • Chain: Optimism
  • Network: Mainnet
Alchemy dashboard interface for creating a new app on the Polygon Mainnet.

Next, copy the RPC URL provided by Alchemy in the app details as shown below.

Alchemy's app dashboard location for viewing keys and copying the RPC URL address for a private endpoint.

Step 3 - Connect to a New Network in MetaMask

Next, open your MetaMask wallet and connect to a new network using the RPC URL from the previous step.

  1. Open Metamask
  2. Click the network name in the window's upper-right corner, as shown below
MetaMask interface for changing your network.
  1. At the bottom of the pop-up window, click the Add Network button.
MetaMask interface for adding a new network.
  1. Enter the following network details based on the blockchain for which you created your private RPC endpoint
  2. Then click Save

Network Details for Creating a Private Ethereum RPC Endpoint 

  • Network Name: Ethereum Mainnet
  • New RPC URL: 1 https://eth-mainnet.alchemyapi.io/v2/your-api-key
  • Chain ID: 1
  • Currency Symbol: ETH
  • Block Explorer URL: https://etherscan.io  

Network Details for Creating a Private Polygon RPC Endpoint 

  • Network Name: Polygon Mainnet
  • New RPC URL: https://polygon-mainnet.g.alchemy.com/v2/your-api-key
  • Chain ID: 137
  • Currency Symbol: MATIC
  • Block Explorer URL: https://polygonscan.com/

For more information, read our guide on how to connect MetaMask to Polygon.

Network Details for Creating a Private Arbitrum RPC Endpoint 

  • Network Name: Arbitrum
  • New RPC URL: https://arb-mainnet.g.alchemy.com/v2/your-api-key 
  • Chain ID: 42161
  • Currency Symbol: AETH
  • Block Explorer URL: https://arbiscan.io/ 

For more information, read our guide on how to connect MetaMask to Arbitrum.

Network Details for Creating a Private Optimism RPC Endpoint 

  • Network Name: Optimism
  • New RPC URL: https://opt-mainnet.g.alchemy.com/v2/your-api-key
  • Chain ID: 10
  • Currency Symbol: ETH
  • Block Explorer URL: https://optimistic.etherscan.io

For more information, read our guide on how to connect MetaMask to Optimism.

MetaMask network settings interface where you can add your personal RPC endpoint URL.

After hitting Save, you’ll be immediately taken to Polygon's Network in the option list!

Create a Personal RPC Endpoint for a Better Web3 User Experience

Private RPC endpoints are a great way for everyday users, builders, and traders to get better performance when trading tokens, minting NFTs, deploying smart contracts, and interacting with dApps on blockchains.

PERSONAL RPC ENDPOINT

Private RPC Endpoint: What it is and How to Make One

What it is And How to Make One

RPC nodes provide a link between blockchains and the decentralized applications (dApps) that run on top of them. Web3 wallets have default RPC node providers so users can easily start interacting with web3 applications, however, sometimes these default, public RPC nodes cause problems for everyday users and web3 developers due to slow network speeds, incorrect blockchain data, and unreliable service (uptime).

In this article we’re going to explain why it is a good idea to create a private RPC endpoint, and how to add one to your MetaMask wallet so you can get faster speeds, accurate data, and more reliable service.

In the context of this article, the term “private RPC endpoint” means a personal RPC endpoint that is not publicly available for everyone else to use. We do not mean that the transactions sent through your personal RPC endpoint are private transactions, that they will settle privately, or that they will not appear in the public mempool.

If you are looking to send private transactions, please refer to the Flashbots API.

A private RPC endpoint is an RPC endpoint with a unique URL that only the owner can use to send transactions to the public mempool, providing individuals with a direct connection to a node provider.

Private RPC endpoints enable users to publish transactions through a dedicated endpoint instead of using their wallet’s default, public endpoint which is being used simultaneously by the wallet’s other users.

Using a private RPC endpoint has many benefits including speed, accurate data, more reliable service, and less competition when submitting transactions during periods of high transaction volumes like an exclusive NFT drop.

Here are some of the use cases where traders, developers, and everyday users could benefit from updating their MetaMask wallet from the default RPC endpoint to a personal one:

  • Sending transactions during an exclusive, first-come-first-serve NFT mint
  • Sending transactions to capitalize on time-sensitive arbitrage opportunities
  • Getting reliable service when other node providers experience degraded service during airdrops

There are multiple reasons why web3 users stand to benefit from creating a private RPC endpoint and updating their default web3 wallet settings to send transactions through a personal RPC endpoint.

Alchemy is the leading web3 node infrastructure provider for Ethereum, Polygon, Arbitrum, Optimism, and many more layer 1 and layer 2 blockchains because of their speed (i.e. low latency), data correctness, and reliability (99.99% uptime), compared to other providers like Infura (MetaMask’s default RPC endpoint provider), and Quicknode.

For everyday users it means Alchemy is faster, more accurate, and dependable than alternative providers.

For developers and traders, using Alchemy has many other benefits from their free account including:

  • Webhooks for Ethereum, Polygon, Arbitrum, and Optimism
  • Free archive data
  • Enhanced APIs
  • User-friendly debugging and application monitoring tools
  • A simple-to-use developer dashboard
  • New accounts can be created in a couple minutes

In addition to these benefits, creating a personal RPC endpoint takes just a couple minutes.

We'll use Alchemy to create a personal RPC endpoint. You can create an account for free here.

Step 1 - Create an Alchemy Account

Enter your name, email address, and a password to sign up, or log into your existing account.

Step 2 - Create a New App

After creating a new account, you will be redirected to our dashboard, where we can create a new app by clicking on the Create App button as shown below.

Alchemy dashboard where you can create a new app for a personal RPC endpoint on Ethereum, Polygon, Arbitrum, Optimism, and more.

Next, input the following app information based on the network for which you want to create a private RPC endpoint. 

For the description, you can write anything you want or leave it blank.

Alchemy App Details for a Personal Ethereum RPC Endpoint

  • Name: Private RPC Endpoint - Ethereum (Mainnet)
  • Chain: Ethereum
  • Network: Mainnet

Alchemy App Details for a Personal Polygon RPC Endpoint

  • Name: Private RPC Endpoint - Polygon (Mainnet)
  • Chain: Polygon
  • Network: Mainnet

Alchemy App Details for a Personal Arbitrum RPC Endpoint

  • Name: Private RPC Endpoint - Arbitrum (Mainnet)
  • Chain: Arbitrum
  • Network: Mainnet

Alchemy App Details for a Personal Optimism RPC Endpoint

  • Name: Private RPC Endpoint - Optimism (Mainnet)
  • Chain: Optimism
  • Network: Mainnet
Alchemy dashboard interface for creating a new app on the Polygon Mainnet.

Next, copy the RPC URL provided by Alchemy in the app details as shown below.

Alchemy's app dashboard location for viewing keys and copying the RPC URL address for a private endpoint.

Step 3 - Connect to a New Network in MetaMask

Next, open your MetaMask wallet and connect to a new network using the RPC URL from the previous step.

  1. Open Metamask
  2. Click the network name in the window's upper-right corner, as shown below
MetaMask interface for changing your network.
  1. At the bottom of the pop-up window, click the Add Network button.
MetaMask interface for adding a new network.
  1. Enter the following network details based on the blockchain for which you created your private RPC endpoint
  2. Then click Save

Network Details for Creating a Private Ethereum RPC Endpoint 

  • Network Name: Ethereum Mainnet
  • New RPC URL: 1 https://eth-mainnet.alchemyapi.io/v2/your-api-key
  • Chain ID: 1
  • Currency Symbol: ETH
  • Block Explorer URL: https://etherscan.io  

Network Details for Creating a Private Polygon RPC Endpoint 

  • Network Name: Polygon Mainnet
  • New RPC URL: https://polygon-mainnet.g.alchemy.com/v2/your-api-key
  • Chain ID: 137
  • Currency Symbol: MATIC
  • Block Explorer URL: https://polygonscan.com/

For more information, read our guide on how to connect MetaMask to Polygon.

Network Details for Creating a Private Arbitrum RPC Endpoint 

  • Network Name: Arbitrum
  • New RPC URL: https://arb-mainnet.g.alchemy.com/v2/your-api-key 
  • Chain ID: 42161
  • Currency Symbol: AETH
  • Block Explorer URL: https://arbiscan.io/ 

For more information, read our guide on how to connect MetaMask to Arbitrum.

Network Details for Creating a Private Optimism RPC Endpoint 

  • Network Name: Optimism
  • New RPC URL: https://opt-mainnet.g.alchemy.com/v2/your-api-key
  • Chain ID: 10
  • Currency Symbol: ETH
  • Block Explorer URL: https://optimistic.etherscan.io

For more information, read our guide on how to connect MetaMask to Optimism.

MetaMask network settings interface where you can add your personal RPC endpoint URL.

After hitting Save, you’ll be immediately taken to Polygon's Network in the option list!

Create a Personal RPC Endpoint for a Better Web3 User Experience

Private RPC endpoints are a great way for everyday users, builders, and traders to get better performance when trading tokens, minting NFTs, deploying smart contracts, and interacting with dApps on blockchains.

ALCHEMY SUPERNODE - ETHEREUM NODE API

Scale to any size, without any errors

Alchemy Supernode finally makes it possible to scale blockchain applications without all the headaches. Plus, our legendary support will guide you every step of the way.

Get started for free
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ALCHEMY SUPERNODE - ETHEREUM NODE API

Scale to any size, without any errors

Alchemy Supernode finally makes it possible to scale blockchain applications without all the headaches. Plus, our legendary support will guide you every step of the way.

Get started for free
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