Network
Launch Date
Consensus
Note
Sepolia
Oct 2021
PoW
Like-for-like representation of Ethereum
Görli
Jan 2019
PoA
Proof-of-Authority
Kiln
Mar 2022
PoS
Post-Merge (for ETH2), shadow fork of the mainnet
Kintsugi
Dec 2021
PoS
DEPRECATED, use Kiln; post-Merge (for ETH2)
Ropsten
Nov 2016
PoW
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia; the Merge to happen on Jun 8, 2022
Rinkeby
Apr 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Görli and Görli Faucet
Kovan
Mar 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia or Görli
List of active and deprecated Ethereum testnets, including Kintsugi.
Features
Optimistic rollup 
ZK-rollup 
Proof
Uses fraud proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Uses validity (zero-knowledge) proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Capital efficiency
Requires waiting through a 1-week delay (dispute period) before withdrawing funds. 
Users can withdraw funds immediately because validity proofs provide incontrovertible evidence of the authenticity of off-chain transactions. 
Data compression
Publishes full transaction data as calldata to Ethereum Mainnet, which increases rollup costs. 
Doesn't need to publish transaction data on Ethereum because ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs already guarantee the accuracy of the rollup state. 
EVM compatibility
Uses a simulation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which allows it to run arbitrary logic and support smart contracts. 
Doesn't widely support EVM computation, although a few EVM-compatible ZK-rollups have appeared. 
Rollup costs
Reduces costs since it publishes minimal data on Ethereum and doesn't have to post proofs for transactions, except in special circumstances. 
Faces higher overhead from costs involved in generating and verifying proofs for every transaction block. ZK proofs require specialized, expensive hardware to create and have high on-chain verification costs. 
Trust assumptions
Doesn't require a trusted setup. 
Requires a trusted setup to work. 
Liveness requirements
Verifiers are needed to keep tabs on the actual rollup state and the one referenced in the state root to detect fraud. 
Users don't need someone to watch the L2 chain to detect fraud. 
Security properties 
Relies on cryptoeconomic incentives to assure users of rollup security. 
Relies on cryptographic guarantees for security. 
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curl 
https://release.solana.com/v1.10.32/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe 
--output 
C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe 
--create-dirs
Ethereum
REINFORCED TRANSACTION OVERVIEW

What are reinforced transactions?

Explore a New Transaction Type that Guarantees Transactions are Mined and Optimized for Gas
Last Updated:
October 25, 2022

Failed or dropped transactions are a recurring problem for Ethereum application developers and everyday users. Failed transactions typically occur during periods of “burstiness” or times when Ethereum’s network sees an influx of on-chain activity, which increases gas volatility and slows down transaction propagation times. 

Reinforced transactions are a new type of transaction that reduces dropped transactions by using a transaction database to monitor pending transactions and re-broadcasting transactions to improve both the likelihood that a transaction is included, as well as the time it takes to mine a pending transaction.

Reinforced transactions, which is a new functionality from Alchemy’s Transact API, is supported on Ethereum and Ethereum Layer 2 EVM chains including:

  • Polygon
  • Arbitrum
  • Optimism

Reinforced Transaction support is available for all Alchemy Growth and Alchemy Enterprise customers. Existing customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app settings of their app dashboard. New customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app creation flow. Sign up for an account today to get started.

What are reinforced transactions?

Reinforced transactions are a new Ethereum transaction type that increase the likelihood of transactions getting included in the next block, particularly during periods of peak network congestion and gas volatility, by re-propagating transactions and optimizing gas prices. Reinforced Transactions are a solution to failed and dropped transactions.

Why do Ethereum transactions fail?

When a transaction request is sent to a node, it can fail for a myriad of reasons:  

  1. Transactions are dropped
  2. Miners don’t hear about the transaction requests
  3. Insufficient gas
  4. Incorrect nonce
  5. Invalid parameters

Reinforced transactions aim to solve transaction issues 1 and 2.

A dropped transaction is a pending transaction, also known as a pooled transaction, that gets removed from Ethereum’s global mempool, or pool of pending transactions that are being propagated across nodes in Ethereum’s peer-to-peer (P2P) network.

How do reinforced transactions reduce failed transactions?

Reinforced transactions reduce failed transactions by sending transactions to a database that monitors all pending transactions and automatically rebroadcasting transactions so they are more broadly propagated across Ethereum’s Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network instead of sending transactions to a single node.

Reinforced transactions ensure:

  1. Transactions are not dropped
  2. Transactions are broadcast (and rebroadcast) as broadly as possible
  3. Transaction reliability

When transactions aren’t getting included in new blocks (i.e. pending transactions aren’t getting mined), the database ensures transactions are being widely peered (i.e. propagated to other nodes), and retries transactions multiple times to ensure transactions are being discovered by miners.

By improving transaction propagation, transactions should only fail when developers, traders, or everyday users need to re-price transactions, change their nonce, or fix broken parameters; otherwise, it will be mined.

Reinforced transactions do not work with private transactions because private transactions are not broadcast to nodes and propagated across the network. Instead, private transactions are sent directly to miners through Flashbots with tools such as Alchemy's Transact API suite.

Reinforced Transactions Test

In a test that compared 800 raw Ethereum transactions to 800reinforced transactions, results demonstrated a 7.9x improvement in transaction mine rate and a 46% improvement in successfully executing transactions (success rate reached 100%).

For sending transactions, we used eth_sendRawTransaction.

For polling and checking a transaction’s status, we used eth_getTransactionReceipt and checked whether or not it gives a pending or non-existent response status.

How to Start Using Reinforced Transactions

Reinforce Transactions are available for all Alchemy Growth and Enterprise customers on Ethereum and Ethereum Layer 2 EVM chains including Optimism, Arbitrum, and Polygon.

Existing customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app settings of their app dashboard.

New customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app creation flow.

‍Sign up for an account today to get started.

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Ethereum
REINFORCED TRANSACTION OVERVIEW

What are reinforced transactions?

Explore a New Transaction Type that Guarantees Transactions are Mined and Optimized for Gas
Last Updated:
October 25, 2022
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Failed or dropped transactions are a recurring problem for Ethereum application developers and everyday users. Failed transactions typically occur during periods of “burstiness” or times when Ethereum’s network sees an influx of on-chain activity, which increases gas volatility and slows down transaction propagation times. 

Reinforced transactions are a new type of transaction that reduces dropped transactions by using a transaction database to monitor pending transactions and re-broadcasting transactions to improve both the likelihood that a transaction is included, as well as the time it takes to mine a pending transaction.

Reinforced transactions, which is a new functionality from Alchemy’s Transact API, is supported on Ethereum and Ethereum Layer 2 EVM chains including:

  • Polygon
  • Arbitrum
  • Optimism

Reinforced Transaction support is available for all Alchemy Growth and Alchemy Enterprise customers. Existing customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app settings of their app dashboard. New customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app creation flow. Sign up for an account today to get started.

What are reinforced transactions?

Reinforced transactions are a new Ethereum transaction type that increase the likelihood of transactions getting included in the next block, particularly during periods of peak network congestion and gas volatility, by re-propagating transactions and optimizing gas prices. Reinforced Transactions are a solution to failed and dropped transactions.

Why do Ethereum transactions fail?

When a transaction request is sent to a node, it can fail for a myriad of reasons:  

  1. Transactions are dropped
  2. Miners don’t hear about the transaction requests
  3. Insufficient gas
  4. Incorrect nonce
  5. Invalid parameters

Reinforced transactions aim to solve transaction issues 1 and 2.

A dropped transaction is a pending transaction, also known as a pooled transaction, that gets removed from Ethereum’s global mempool, or pool of pending transactions that are being propagated across nodes in Ethereum’s peer-to-peer (P2P) network.

How do reinforced transactions reduce failed transactions?

Reinforced transactions reduce failed transactions by sending transactions to a database that monitors all pending transactions and automatically rebroadcasting transactions so they are more broadly propagated across Ethereum’s Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network instead of sending transactions to a single node.

Reinforced transactions ensure:

  1. Transactions are not dropped
  2. Transactions are broadcast (and rebroadcast) as broadly as possible
  3. Transaction reliability

When transactions aren’t getting included in new blocks (i.e. pending transactions aren’t getting mined), the database ensures transactions are being widely peered (i.e. propagated to other nodes), and retries transactions multiple times to ensure transactions are being discovered by miners.

By improving transaction propagation, transactions should only fail when developers, traders, or everyday users need to re-price transactions, change their nonce, or fix broken parameters; otherwise, it will be mined.

Reinforced transactions do not work with private transactions because private transactions are not broadcast to nodes and propagated across the network. Instead, private transactions are sent directly to miners through Flashbots with tools such as Alchemy's Transact API suite.

Reinforced Transactions Test

In a test that compared 800 raw Ethereum transactions to 800reinforced transactions, results demonstrated a 7.9x improvement in transaction mine rate and a 46% improvement in successfully executing transactions (success rate reached 100%).

For sending transactions, we used eth_sendRawTransaction.

For polling and checking a transaction’s status, we used eth_getTransactionReceipt and checked whether or not it gives a pending or non-existent response status.

How to Start Using Reinforced Transactions

Reinforce Transactions are available for all Alchemy Growth and Enterprise customers on Ethereum and Ethereum Layer 2 EVM chains including Optimism, Arbitrum, and Polygon.

Existing customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app settings of their app dashboard.

New customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app creation flow.

‍Sign up for an account today to get started.

Failed or dropped transactions are a recurring problem for Ethereum application developers and everyday users. Failed transactions typically occur during periods of “burstiness” or times when Ethereum’s network sees an influx of on-chain activity, which increases gas volatility and slows down transaction propagation times. 

Reinforced transactions are a new type of transaction that reduces dropped transactions by using a transaction database to monitor pending transactions and re-broadcasting transactions to improve both the likelihood that a transaction is included, as well as the time it takes to mine a pending transaction.

Reinforced transactions, which is a new functionality from Alchemy’s Transact API, is supported on Ethereum and Ethereum Layer 2 EVM chains including:

  • Polygon
  • Arbitrum
  • Optimism

Reinforced Transaction support is available for all Alchemy Growth and Alchemy Enterprise customers. Existing customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app settings of their app dashboard. New customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app creation flow. Sign up for an account today to get started.

What are reinforced transactions?

Reinforced transactions are a new Ethereum transaction type that increase the likelihood of transactions getting included in the next block, particularly during periods of peak network congestion and gas volatility, by re-propagating transactions and optimizing gas prices. Reinforced Transactions are a solution to failed and dropped transactions.

Why do Ethereum transactions fail?

When a transaction request is sent to a node, it can fail for a myriad of reasons:  

  1. Transactions are dropped
  2. Miners don’t hear about the transaction requests
  3. Insufficient gas
  4. Incorrect nonce
  5. Invalid parameters

Reinforced transactions aim to solve transaction issues 1 and 2.

A dropped transaction is a pending transaction, also known as a pooled transaction, that gets removed from Ethereum’s global mempool, or pool of pending transactions that are being propagated across nodes in Ethereum’s peer-to-peer (P2P) network.

How do reinforced transactions reduce failed transactions?

Reinforced transactions reduce failed transactions by sending transactions to a database that monitors all pending transactions and automatically rebroadcasting transactions so they are more broadly propagated across Ethereum’s Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network instead of sending transactions to a single node.

Reinforced transactions ensure:

  1. Transactions are not dropped
  2. Transactions are broadcast (and rebroadcast) as broadly as possible
  3. Transaction reliability

When transactions aren’t getting included in new blocks (i.e. pending transactions aren’t getting mined), the database ensures transactions are being widely peered (i.e. propagated to other nodes), and retries transactions multiple times to ensure transactions are being discovered by miners.

By improving transaction propagation, transactions should only fail when developers, traders, or everyday users need to re-price transactions, change their nonce, or fix broken parameters; otherwise, it will be mined.

Reinforced transactions do not work with private transactions because private transactions are not broadcast to nodes and propagated across the network. Instead, private transactions are sent directly to miners through Flashbots with tools such as Alchemy's Transact API suite.

Reinforced Transactions Test

In a test that compared 800 raw Ethereum transactions to 800reinforced transactions, results demonstrated a 7.9x improvement in transaction mine rate and a 46% improvement in successfully executing transactions (success rate reached 100%).

For sending transactions, we used eth_sendRawTransaction.

For polling and checking a transaction’s status, we used eth_getTransactionReceipt and checked whether or not it gives a pending or non-existent response status.

How to Start Using Reinforced Transactions

Reinforce Transactions are available for all Alchemy Growth and Enterprise customers on Ethereum and Ethereum Layer 2 EVM chains including Optimism, Arbitrum, and Polygon.

Existing customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app settings of their app dashboard.

New customers can add Reinforce Transaction support to their apps within the app creation flow.

‍Sign up for an account today to get started.

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