Network
Launch Date
Consensus
Note
Sepolia
Oct 2021
PoW
Like-for-like representation of Ethereum
Görli
Jan 2019
PoA
Proof-of-Authority
Kiln
Mar 2022
PoS
Post-Merge (for ETH2), shadow fork of the mainnet
Kintsugi
Dec 2021
PoS
DEPRECATED, use Kiln; post-Merge (for ETH2)
Ropsten
Nov 2016
PoW
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia; the Merge to happen on Jun 8, 2022
Rinkeby
Apr 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Görli and Görli Faucet
Kovan
Mar 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia or Görli
List of active and deprecated Ethereum testnets, including Kintsugi.
Features
Optimistic rollup 
ZK-rollup 
Proof
Uses fraud proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Uses validity (zero-knowledge) proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Capital efficiency
Requires waiting through a 1-week delay (dispute period) before withdrawing funds. 
Users can withdraw funds immediately because validity proofs provide incontrovertible evidence of the authenticity of off-chain transactions. 
Data compression
Publishes full transaction data as calldata to Ethereum Mainnet, which increases rollup costs. 
Doesn't need to publish transaction data on Ethereum because ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs already guarantee the accuracy of the rollup state. 
EVM compatibility
Uses a simulation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which allows it to run arbitrary logic and support smart contracts. 
Doesn't widely support EVM computation, although a few EVM-compatible ZK-rollups have appeared. 
Rollup costs
Reduces costs since it publishes minimal data on Ethereum and doesn't have to post proofs for transactions, except in special circumstances. 
Faces higher overhead from costs involved in generating and verifying proofs for every transaction block. ZK proofs require specialized, expensive hardware to create and have high on-chain verification costs. 
Trust assumptions
Doesn't require a trusted setup. 
Requires a trusted setup to work. 
Liveness requirements
Verifiers are needed to keep tabs on the actual rollup state and the one referenced in the state root to detect fraud. 
Users don't need someone to watch the L2 chain to detect fraud. 
Security properties 
Relies on cryptoeconomic incentives to assure users of rollup security. 
Relies on cryptographic guarantees for security. 
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curl 
https://release.solana.com/v1.10.32/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe 
--output 
C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe 
--create-dirs
Solana
SOLANA DEV TOOLS

Essential Solana Developer Tools (2022)

Learn the Tools You Need to Start Building on Solana
Last Updated:
July 21, 2022

In the past, a majority of blockchain and web3 development took place on the Ethereum blockchain. However, as competitor blockchains have surfaced in recent years, developers have begun to explore other blockchains in an effort to find a more developer-friendly and efficient solution.

In this search, many have turned to the Solana blockchain. The Solana blockchain, one of the largest blockchains known for its efficient design, fast transaction speeds, and less crowded developer environment, solves many of the inefficiencies observed with the Ethereum network.

In an effort to promote development, Solana has formed a strategic partnership with Alchemy with Alchemy fully supporting Solana. Earlier this summer, Alchemy announced its expansion to the Solana ecosystem in an effort to improve the Solana blockchain development experience.

This article covers a broad introduction to Solana development through an array of explanations and tutorials.

Solana Development Tools

To start building on the Solana blockchain, devs must first get a Solana RPC endpoint and the correct developer environment configured. As a result, users must first become familiar with tools like the Solana Tool Suite, Rust, and Anchor.

After you're familiar with the fundamental Solana developer tools, you can start interacting with more advanced tooling like Metaplex, and you can start launching your smart contracts and dApps to the Solana Devnet.

Solana Tool Suite

The first step in creating a functional Solana developer ecosystem, is to install and become familiar with the Solana tool suite, a strict prerequisite for many Solana developer tools like Anchor.

Solana Tool Suite Setup

In order to set up the Solana Tool Suite for MacOS or Linux users, paste the following command into a terminal.

sh -c "$(curl -sSfL https://release.solana.com/v1.10.31/install)"

For Windows users, paste the following command into a terminal.

curl https://release.solana.com/v1.10.31/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe --output C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe --create-dirs

Rust

Rust is a high-speed and stable programming language that is used to power a variety of software applications ranging from operating systems to blockchains. Specifically, the Solana blockchain is powered by the Rust programming language, necessitating its use for Solana-based blockchain development.

Rust Setup

In order to set up Rust for MacOS or Linux users, paste the following command into a terminal.

curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh

For Windows users, follow the detailed steps on the Rust book's installation guide.

To ensure that Rust was properly installed and to practice development in Rust, we will compose a “Hello, World” program using the Rust programming language. 

First, create a folder titled, “Hello_World_Rust” and cd into the folder with the command:

cd Hello_World_Rust

Next, open the folder in preferred text editor (i.e. Visual Studio Code, Atom, etc). Once opened, create a file titled, “main.rs”

Inside “main.rs” write and save:

fn main() {

 println!("Hello World");

}

In the terminal, write:

rustc main.rs

./main

These steps should produce a functioning Rust program that prints “Hello World.”

Anchor

Anchor is a Solana development framework that makes it easier to develop Solana-based programs and smart contracts. Anchor simplifies the Solana development process by providing boilerplate code and security infrastructure, allowing users to avoid dealing with the finicky inner-workings of an ordinary Solana program.

As a result, Anchor is a pivotal tool in the Solana development ecosystem.

Anchor Setup

To install Anchor, we must first install Anchor version manager (AVM). Open a terminal and paste the following command:

cargo install --git https://github.com/project-serum/anchor avm --locked --force

Next, finish installing the Anchor software with the following command:

avm install latest

avm use latest

To ensure that Anchor was properly installed, try composing an Anchor workspace using the command:

anchor init <workspace-name>

In this folder, you will find the following main files and folders

  • Anchor.toml file
  • App folder
  • Programs folder
  • Tests folder
  • Migrations folder

Solana Web3.js

Web3.js for Solana is a Solana Javascript API built using the Solana JSON RPC API. Web3.js serves as an accessible interface for developers to interact with the Solana blockchain using Javascript, empowering engineers to build on the Solana blockchain. 

Web3.js Setup

Installing Solana Web3.js is really easy. Go to your command line interface and run this command:

yarn add @solana/web3.js

SPL-Token

The SPL-Token package is another Javascript package that allows developers to mint, transfer, and interact with tokens native to the Solana blockchain, a necessity when developing software that requires Solana-based tokens to operate.

SPL-Token Setup

Installing the SPL-Token package is straightforward. Open your CLI environment and run this script:

yarn add @solana/spl-token

Wallet-Adapter

The Wallet-Adapter javascript package allows developers to easily integrate Solana-based wallets like Phantom and Solflare into their dApps, facilitating easy access to Solana-based funds.

Wallet-Adapter Setup

To set up the Wallet-Adapter package, run:

yarn add @solana/wallet-adapter-wallets \

    @solana/wallet-adapter-base

Solana Developer Support

Learning how to develop dApps on a brand new blockchain can frustrate even seasoned developers. If you need help getting started on Solana, explore this collection of documentation, tools, and additional resources:

  • Solana Discord - get support from Solana devs and developer relations team members
  • Anchor Discord - work with builders developing dApps and maintaining the Anchor library
  • Solana Playground - start building on Solana directly from your browser
  • Alchemy Discord - our developer relations team is always ready to answer questions about Alchemy's Solana API

Solana Tutorials and Hackathons

Now that you have set up your Solana development environment, the next step in your journey as a Solana developer is to practice building with Solana's tools using online tutorials, courses, and bootcamps.

One of the best ways to master a new blockchain is to learn by building Solana projects. In addition to following self-paced tutorials to reinforce knowledge, developers can also attend Solana hackathons to meet use these essential tools in real-world projects.

Start Building on Solana

In this article, you learned about the dev tooling required to start building on the Solana blockchain. You explored how to set up your local environment, Solana tutorials, and places to get support. Last step is to sign up for a free Solana developer account on Alchemy and start building!

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Solana
SOLANA DEV TOOLS

Essential Solana Developer Tools to Start Building

Learn the Tools You Need to Start Building on Solana
Last Updated:
July 21, 2022
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In the past, a majority of blockchain and web3 development took place on the Ethereum blockchain. However, as competitor blockchains have surfaced in recent years, developers have begun to explore other blockchains in an effort to find a more developer-friendly and efficient solution.

In this search, many have turned to the Solana blockchain. The Solana blockchain, one of the largest blockchains known for its efficient design, fast transaction speeds, and less crowded developer environment, solves many of the inefficiencies observed with the Ethereum network.

In an effort to promote development, Solana has formed a strategic partnership with Alchemy with Alchemy fully supporting Solana. Earlier this summer, Alchemy announced its expansion to the Solana ecosystem in an effort to improve the Solana blockchain development experience.

This article covers a broad introduction to Solana development through an array of explanations and tutorials.

Solana Development Tools

To start building on the Solana blockchain, devs must first get a Solana RPC endpoint and the correct developer environment configured. As a result, users must first become familiar with tools like the Solana Tool Suite, Rust, and Anchor.

After you're familiar with the fundamental Solana developer tools, you can start interacting with more advanced tooling like Metaplex, and you can start launching your smart contracts and dApps to the Solana Devnet.

Solana Tool Suite

The first step in creating a functional Solana developer ecosystem, is to install and become familiar with the Solana tool suite, a strict prerequisite for many Solana developer tools like Anchor.

Solana Tool Suite Setup

In order to set up the Solana Tool Suite for MacOS or Linux users, paste the following command into a terminal.

sh -c "$(curl -sSfL https://release.solana.com/v1.10.31/install)"

For Windows users, paste the following command into a terminal.

curl https://release.solana.com/v1.10.31/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe --output C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe --create-dirs

Rust

Rust is a high-speed and stable programming language that is used to power a variety of software applications ranging from operating systems to blockchains. Specifically, the Solana blockchain is powered by the Rust programming language, necessitating its use for Solana-based blockchain development.

Rust Setup

In order to set up Rust for MacOS or Linux users, paste the following command into a terminal.

curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh

For Windows users, follow the detailed steps on the Rust book's installation guide.

To ensure that Rust was properly installed and to practice development in Rust, we will compose a “Hello, World” program using the Rust programming language. 

First, create a folder titled, “Hello_World_Rust” and cd into the folder with the command:

cd Hello_World_Rust

Next, open the folder in preferred text editor (i.e. Visual Studio Code, Atom, etc). Once opened, create a file titled, “main.rs”

Inside “main.rs” write and save:

fn main() {

 println!("Hello World");

}

In the terminal, write:

rustc main.rs

./main

These steps should produce a functioning Rust program that prints “Hello World.”

Anchor

Anchor is a Solana development framework that makes it easier to develop Solana-based programs and smart contracts. Anchor simplifies the Solana development process by providing boilerplate code and security infrastructure, allowing users to avoid dealing with the finicky inner-workings of an ordinary Solana program.

As a result, Anchor is a pivotal tool in the Solana development ecosystem.

Anchor Setup

To install Anchor, we must first install Anchor version manager (AVM). Open a terminal and paste the following command:

cargo install --git https://github.com/project-serum/anchor avm --locked --force

Next, finish installing the Anchor software with the following command:

avm install latest

avm use latest

To ensure that Anchor was properly installed, try composing an Anchor workspace using the command:

anchor init <workspace-name>

In this folder, you will find the following main files and folders

  • Anchor.toml file
  • App folder
  • Programs folder
  • Tests folder
  • Migrations folder

Solana Web3.js

Web3.js for Solana is a Solana Javascript API built using the Solana JSON RPC API. Web3.js serves as an accessible interface for developers to interact with the Solana blockchain using Javascript, empowering engineers to build on the Solana blockchain. 

Web3.js Setup

Installing Solana Web3.js is really easy. Go to your command line interface and run this command:

yarn add @solana/web3.js

SPL-Token

The SPL-Token package is another Javascript package that allows developers to mint, transfer, and interact with tokens native to the Solana blockchain, a necessity when developing software that requires Solana-based tokens to operate.

SPL-Token Setup

Installing the SPL-Token package is straightforward. Open your CLI environment and run this script:

yarn add @solana/spl-token

Wallet-Adapter

The Wallet-Adapter javascript package allows developers to easily integrate Solana-based wallets like Phantom and Solflare into their dApps, facilitating easy access to Solana-based funds.

Wallet-Adapter Setup

To set up the Wallet-Adapter package, run:

yarn add @solana/wallet-adapter-wallets \

    @solana/wallet-adapter-base

Solana Developer Support

Learning how to develop dApps on a brand new blockchain can frustrate even seasoned developers. If you need help getting started on Solana, explore this collection of documentation, tools, and additional resources:

  • Solana Discord - get support from Solana devs and developer relations team members
  • Anchor Discord - work with builders developing dApps and maintaining the Anchor library
  • Solana Playground - start building on Solana directly from your browser
  • Alchemy Discord - our developer relations team is always ready to answer questions about Alchemy's Solana API

Solana Tutorials and Hackathons

Now that you have set up your Solana development environment, the next step in your journey as a Solana developer is to practice building with Solana's tools using online tutorials, courses, and bootcamps.

One of the best ways to master a new blockchain is to learn by building Solana projects. In addition to following self-paced tutorials to reinforce knowledge, developers can also attend Solana hackathons to meet use these essential tools in real-world projects.

Start Building on Solana

In this article, you learned about the dev tooling required to start building on the Solana blockchain. You explored how to set up your local environment, Solana tutorials, and places to get support. Last step is to sign up for a free Solana developer account on Alchemy and start building!

In the past, a majority of blockchain and web3 development took place on the Ethereum blockchain. However, as competitor blockchains have surfaced in recent years, developers have begun to explore other blockchains in an effort to find a more developer-friendly and efficient solution.

In this search, many have turned to the Solana blockchain. The Solana blockchain, one of the largest blockchains known for its efficient design, fast transaction speeds, and less crowded developer environment, solves many of the inefficiencies observed with the Ethereum network.

In an effort to promote development, Solana has formed a strategic partnership with Alchemy with Alchemy fully supporting Solana. Earlier this summer, Alchemy announced its expansion to the Solana ecosystem in an effort to improve the Solana blockchain development experience.

This article covers a broad introduction to Solana development through an array of explanations and tutorials.

Solana Development Tools

To start building on the Solana blockchain, devs must first get a Solana RPC endpoint and the correct developer environment configured. As a result, users must first become familiar with tools like the Solana Tool Suite, Rust, and Anchor.

After you're familiar with the fundamental Solana developer tools, you can start interacting with more advanced tooling like Metaplex, and you can start launching your smart contracts and dApps to the Solana Devnet.

Solana Tool Suite

The first step in creating a functional Solana developer ecosystem, is to install and become familiar with the Solana tool suite, a strict prerequisite for many Solana developer tools like Anchor.

Solana Tool Suite Setup

In order to set up the Solana Tool Suite for MacOS or Linux users, paste the following command into a terminal.

sh -c "$(curl -sSfL https://release.solana.com/v1.10.31/install)"

For Windows users, paste the following command into a terminal.

curl https://release.solana.com/v1.10.31/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe --output C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe --create-dirs

Rust

Rust is a high-speed and stable programming language that is used to power a variety of software applications ranging from operating systems to blockchains. Specifically, the Solana blockchain is powered by the Rust programming language, necessitating its use for Solana-based blockchain development.

Rust Setup

In order to set up Rust for MacOS or Linux users, paste the following command into a terminal.

curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh

For Windows users, follow the detailed steps on the Rust book's installation guide.

To ensure that Rust was properly installed and to practice development in Rust, we will compose a “Hello, World” program using the Rust programming language. 

First, create a folder titled, “Hello_World_Rust” and cd into the folder with the command:

cd Hello_World_Rust

Next, open the folder in preferred text editor (i.e. Visual Studio Code, Atom, etc). Once opened, create a file titled, “main.rs”

Inside “main.rs” write and save:

fn main() {

 println!("Hello World");

}

In the terminal, write:

rustc main.rs

./main

These steps should produce a functioning Rust program that prints “Hello World.”

Anchor

Anchor is a Solana development framework that makes it easier to develop Solana-based programs and smart contracts. Anchor simplifies the Solana development process by providing boilerplate code and security infrastructure, allowing users to avoid dealing with the finicky inner-workings of an ordinary Solana program.

As a result, Anchor is a pivotal tool in the Solana development ecosystem.

Anchor Setup

To install Anchor, we must first install Anchor version manager (AVM). Open a terminal and paste the following command:

cargo install --git https://github.com/project-serum/anchor avm --locked --force

Next, finish installing the Anchor software with the following command:

avm install latest

avm use latest

To ensure that Anchor was properly installed, try composing an Anchor workspace using the command:

anchor init <workspace-name>

In this folder, you will find the following main files and folders

  • Anchor.toml file
  • App folder
  • Programs folder
  • Tests folder
  • Migrations folder

Solana Web3.js

Web3.js for Solana is a Solana Javascript API built using the Solana JSON RPC API. Web3.js serves as an accessible interface for developers to interact with the Solana blockchain using Javascript, empowering engineers to build on the Solana blockchain. 

Web3.js Setup

Installing Solana Web3.js is really easy. Go to your command line interface and run this command:

yarn add @solana/web3.js

SPL-Token

The SPL-Token package is another Javascript package that allows developers to mint, transfer, and interact with tokens native to the Solana blockchain, a necessity when developing software that requires Solana-based tokens to operate.

SPL-Token Setup

Installing the SPL-Token package is straightforward. Open your CLI environment and run this script:

yarn add @solana/spl-token

Wallet-Adapter

The Wallet-Adapter javascript package allows developers to easily integrate Solana-based wallets like Phantom and Solflare into their dApps, facilitating easy access to Solana-based funds.

Wallet-Adapter Setup

To set up the Wallet-Adapter package, run:

yarn add @solana/wallet-adapter-wallets \

    @solana/wallet-adapter-base

Solana Developer Support

Learning how to develop dApps on a brand new blockchain can frustrate even seasoned developers. If you need help getting started on Solana, explore this collection of documentation, tools, and additional resources:

  • Solana Discord - get support from Solana devs and developer relations team members
  • Anchor Discord - work with builders developing dApps and maintaining the Anchor library
  • Solana Playground - start building on Solana directly from your browser
  • Alchemy Discord - our developer relations team is always ready to answer questions about Alchemy's Solana API

Solana Tutorials and Hackathons

Now that you have set up your Solana development environment, the next step in your journey as a Solana developer is to practice building with Solana's tools using online tutorials, courses, and bootcamps.

One of the best ways to master a new blockchain is to learn by building Solana projects. In addition to following self-paced tutorials to reinforce knowledge, developers can also attend Solana hackathons to meet use these essential tools in real-world projects.

Start Building on Solana

In this article, you learned about the dev tooling required to start building on the Solana blockchain. You explored how to set up your local environment, Solana tutorials, and places to get support. Last step is to sign up for a free Solana developer account on Alchemy and start building!

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Alchemy combines the most powerful web3 developer products and tools with resources, community and legendary support.

Get started for free