Network
Launch Date
Consensus
Note
Sepolia
Oct 2021
PoW
Like-for-like representation of Ethereum
Görli
Jan 2019
PoA
Proof-of-Authority
Kiln
Mar 2022
PoS
Post-Merge (for ETH2), shadow fork of the mainnet
Kintsugi
Dec 2021
PoS
DEPRECATED, use Kiln; post-Merge (for ETH2)
Ropsten
Nov 2016
PoW
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia; the Merge to happen on Jun 8, 2022
Rinkeby
Apr 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Görli and Görli Faucet
Kovan
Mar 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia or Görli
List of active and deprecated Ethereum testnets, including Kintsugi.
Features
Optimistic rollup 
ZK-rollup 
Proof
Uses fraud proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Uses validity (zero-knowledge) proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Capital efficiency
Requires waiting through a 1-week delay (dispute period) before withdrawing funds. 
Users can withdraw funds immediately because validity proofs provide incontrovertible evidence of the authenticity of off-chain transactions. 
Data compression
Publishes full transaction data as calldata to Ethereum Mainnet, which increases rollup costs. 
Doesn't need to publish transaction data on Ethereum because ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs already guarantee the accuracy of the rollup state. 
EVM compatibility
Uses a simulation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which allows it to run arbitrary logic and support smart contracts. 
Doesn't widely support EVM computation, although a few EVM-compatible ZK-rollups have appeared. 
Rollup costs
Reduces costs since it publishes minimal data on Ethereum and doesn't have to post proofs for transactions, except in special circumstances. 
Faces higher overhead from costs involved in generating and verifying proofs for every transaction block. ZK proofs require specialized, expensive hardware to create and have high on-chain verification costs. 
Trust assumptions
Doesn't require a trusted setup. 
Requires a trusted setup to work. 
Liveness requirements
Verifiers are needed to keep tabs on the actual rollup state and the one referenced in the state root to detect fraud. 
Users don't need someone to watch the L2 chain to detect fraud. 
Security properties 
Relies on cryptoeconomic incentives to assure users of rollup security. 
Relies on cryptographic guarantees for security. 
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curl 
https://release.solana.com/v1.10.32/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe 
--output 
C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe 
--create-dirs
Layer 2
ARBITRUM DEVELOPER GUIDE

7 Steps to Start Developing on Arbitrum: A Complete Guide

Learn How to Create an Arbitrum Dapp
Last Updated:
October 19, 2022
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Table of Contents

{{get-started-arbitrum}}

Arbitrum is an Ethereum layer-2 blockchain that uses optimistic rollups to provide developers with greater scalability and lower gas costs than running dapps on Ethereum's base layer blockchain while benefiting from Ethereum's layer 1 security.

If you're interested in learning how to develop Arbitrum, this article will be perfect for you! In this guide, we will walk you through the steps necessary to start coding on the Arbitrum network.

What Is Arbitrum?

Arbitrum is a layer-2 optimistic rollup blockchain that helps to scale the main Ethereum chain while remaining trustlessly secure. While it is based on Ethereum's Virtual Machine (EVM), Arbitrum offers a unique design that makes it much more scalable and user-friendly than the Ethereum network.

In addition, Arbitrum smart contracts are EVM-compatible meaning they work with existing Ethereum tooling, wallets, and dapps. Arbitrum was created as one of the Ethereum scaling solutions available to create low cost smart contracts and to address long transaction times.

The Arbitrum Virtual Machine, which runs on ArbOS, helps act as a record-keeper, traffic cop, and enforcer for the execution of smart contracts on the Arbitrum chain.

How to Start Developing on Arbitrum

Before you start developing on Arbitrum, it is important to understand how the blockchain works and configure a few prerequisites:

  1. Hardhat
  2. An Alchemy account
  3. A web3 wallet (E.g. MetaMask, Apex, etc.)

1. Understand How Arbitrum Works

Before you start developing on Arbitrum, it's important to have a good understanding of how the platform works. You can read the Arbitrum Whitepaper to learn more about the technical details.

According to Offchain Labs, the team who created and maintains Arbitrum, the architecture of Arbitrum is as follows: Users and service providers are part of the off-chain on the left, and the Arbitrum system consists of Layer 1 and Layer 2 on the right.

Arbitrum is a layer-2 rollup solution (green) that sits on top of Layer-1 Ethereum chain (orange).

Arbitrum architecture diagram from Offchain labs.
Source: Offchain Labs

In addition, the Arbitrum team has created several resources to help developers get started, including an overview of the platform and a step-by-step guide to creating your first smart contract.

2. Download Hardhat (Integrated Development Environment)

There are two ways to develop on Arbitrum: using the online IDE or by setting up a local development environment. Either way, you’ll need to choose and configure an IDE for Solidity development before you start.

For this article we will build with Hardhat, a local development environment. Once you're done with installing Hardhat, create a Hardhat project.

3. Create An Arbitrum App on Alchemy

To deploy a smart contract, you will need an Arbitrum RPC node. Fortunately, you don't need to run your own Arbitrum node, instead you can sign up for Alchemy for free and create an app on the Arbitrum-Goerli testnet.

Once you're signed up, here's what to do:

  1. Click on the Dashboard
  2. Click "Create App"
  3. Pick a name for your app
  4. Select the Arbitrum Nitro Goerli testnet.
  5. Then click "Create App"

Your app should appear in the Alchemy Dashboard.

4. Get Fake ETH from the Goerli Faucet

In order to interact with Arbitrum contracts on the Arbitrum-Goerli testnet, you'll need some test ETH. The easiest way to get Goerli ETH is from a faucet.

  1. Add Arbitrum to MetaMask
  2. Go to the Goerli faucet
  3. ‍Enter your Ethereum address
  4. You should receive Goerli ETH in your MetaMask wallet in a few minutes

To check if you've received the ETH from the faucet, go into the MetaMask settings, and under Advanced, select "Show test networks".

If you're using the Goerli faucet that's compatible with the Arbitrum Nitro Testnet, here is how to bridge Goerli tokens to Arbitrum Nitro.

5. Write, Compile, and Deploy Your Smart Contract

At this point, you will be able to start writing your smart contract. Follow the steps in the Alchemy docs to build a simple "Hello World" smart contract. You can also follow this Hello World video tutorial on how to write, compile, and deploy the "Hello World" smart contract. This github repo contains all the scripts covered in the video.

Once you're done writing your contract, compile it using Hardhat, connect to an Ethereum client (Ganache or Geth), and use the hardhat deploy command to deploy your contract.

If you want more inspiration, be sure to take a look at the Offchain Labs GitHub monorepo for demo examples such as a Pet Shop dapp and an Election dapp.

6. Interact With and Submit Your Smart Contract to Etherscan

After you've created your smart contract, you'll need to learn how to interact with a smart contract for it to be useful! Watch this video tutorial on how to read and interact with a smart contract.

The video will run you through the following steps:

  • Create an interact.js file
  • Update your env. file
  • Grab your contract ABI
  • Create a contract instance
  • Read and update the init message

Once done, you're ready to publish your contract to Etherscan. Watch this video to learn how to verify your contract on Etherscan.

This is done by:

  • Installing the hardhat-etherscan plugin
  • Changing the Etherscan config options
  • Verifying the smart contract on Etherscan

All transactions on Arbitrum can be seen on the Arbitrum block explorer.

7. Integrate Your Smart Contract With a Frontend

Creating and seeing your smart contract being published to Etherscan isn't the end! You'll now need to integrate your smart contract with a frontend interface.

The tutorial will cover these steps:

  • Cloning the starter files
  • Check out the starter files
  • Read from the smart contract
  • Set up an Ethereum wallet
  • Connect MetaMask to UI
  • Implement the updateMessage function
  • Make your own dApp

Congratulations! You just developed your own simple dApp on Arbitrum! 🎉

Ever since Arbitrum's mainnet launch, a growing number of developers have been building Arbitrum smart contracts on the blockchain, and learning how to develop on Arbitrum is an important step in becoming a well-rounded Solidity developer.

Before launching your smart contract to Arbitrum's mainnet, remember to test your dapp thoroughly on testnets and consider hiring a smart contract auditing company to test your contracts for vulnerabilities.

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Layer 2
ARBITRUM DEVELOPER GUIDE

How to Start Developing on Arbitrum

Learn How to Create an Arbitrum Dapp
Last Updated:
October 19, 2022
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents

{{get-started-arbitrum}}

Arbitrum is an Ethereum layer-2 blockchain that uses optimistic rollups to provide developers with greater scalability and lower gas costs than running dapps on Ethereum's base layer blockchain while benefiting from Ethereum's layer 1 security.

If you're interested in learning how to develop Arbitrum, this article will be perfect for you! In this guide, we will walk you through the steps necessary to start coding on the Arbitrum network.

What Is Arbitrum?

Arbitrum is a layer-2 optimistic rollup blockchain that helps to scale the main Ethereum chain while remaining trustlessly secure. While it is based on Ethereum's Virtual Machine (EVM), Arbitrum offers a unique design that makes it much more scalable and user-friendly than the Ethereum network.

In addition, Arbitrum smart contracts are EVM-compatible meaning they work with existing Ethereum tooling, wallets, and dapps. Arbitrum was created as one of the Ethereum scaling solutions available to create low cost smart contracts and to address long transaction times.

The Arbitrum Virtual Machine, which runs on ArbOS, helps act as a record-keeper, traffic cop, and enforcer for the execution of smart contracts on the Arbitrum chain.

How to Start Developing on Arbitrum

Before you start developing on Arbitrum, it is important to understand how the blockchain works and configure a few prerequisites:

  1. Hardhat
  2. An Alchemy account
  3. A web3 wallet (E.g. MetaMask, Apex, etc.)

1. Understand How Arbitrum Works

Before you start developing on Arbitrum, it's important to have a good understanding of how the platform works. You can read the Arbitrum Whitepaper to learn more about the technical details.

According to Offchain Labs, the team who created and maintains Arbitrum, the architecture of Arbitrum is as follows: Users and service providers are part of the off-chain on the left, and the Arbitrum system consists of Layer 1 and Layer 2 on the right.

Arbitrum is a layer-2 rollup solution (green) that sits on top of Layer-1 Ethereum chain (orange).

Arbitrum architecture diagram from Offchain labs.
Source: Offchain Labs

In addition, the Arbitrum team has created several resources to help developers get started, including an overview of the platform and a step-by-step guide to creating your first smart contract.

2. Download Hardhat (Integrated Development Environment)

There are two ways to develop on Arbitrum: using the online IDE or by setting up a local development environment. Either way, you’ll need to choose and configure an IDE for Solidity development before you start.

For this article we will build with Hardhat, a local development environment. Once you're done with installing Hardhat, create a Hardhat project.

3. Create An Arbitrum App on Alchemy

To deploy a smart contract, you will need an Arbitrum RPC node. Fortunately, you don't need to run your own Arbitrum node, instead you can sign up for Alchemy for free and create an app on the Arbitrum-Goerli testnet.

Once you're signed up, here's what to do:

  1. Click on the Dashboard
  2. Click "Create App"
  3. Pick a name for your app
  4. Select the Arbitrum Nitro Goerli testnet.
  5. Then click "Create App"

Your app should appear in the Alchemy Dashboard.

4. Get Fake ETH from the Goerli Faucet

In order to interact with Arbitrum contracts on the Arbitrum-Goerli testnet, you'll need some test ETH. The easiest way to get Goerli ETH is from a faucet.

  1. Add Arbitrum to MetaMask
  2. Go to the Goerli faucet
  3. ‍Enter your Ethereum address
  4. You should receive Goerli ETH in your MetaMask wallet in a few minutes

To check if you've received the ETH from the faucet, go into the MetaMask settings, and under Advanced, select "Show test networks".

If you're using the Goerli faucet that's compatible with the Arbitrum Nitro Testnet, here is how to bridge Goerli tokens to Arbitrum Nitro.

5. Write, Compile, and Deploy Your Smart Contract

At this point, you will be able to start writing your smart contract. Follow the steps in the Alchemy docs to build a simple "Hello World" smart contract. You can also follow this Hello World video tutorial on how to write, compile, and deploy the "Hello World" smart contract. This github repo contains all the scripts covered in the video.

Once you're done writing your contract, compile it using Hardhat, connect to an Ethereum client (Ganache or Geth), and use the hardhat deploy command to deploy your contract.

If you want more inspiration, be sure to take a look at the Offchain Labs GitHub monorepo for demo examples such as a Pet Shop dapp and an Election dapp.

6. Interact With and Submit Your Smart Contract to Etherscan

After you've created your smart contract, you'll need to learn how to interact with a smart contract for it to be useful! Watch this video tutorial on how to read and interact with a smart contract.

The video will run you through the following steps:

  • Create an interact.js file
  • Update your env. file
  • Grab your contract ABI
  • Create a contract instance
  • Read and update the init message

Once done, you're ready to publish your contract to Etherscan. Watch this video to learn how to verify your contract on Etherscan.

This is done by:

  • Installing the hardhat-etherscan plugin
  • Changing the Etherscan config options
  • Verifying the smart contract on Etherscan

All transactions on Arbitrum can be seen on the Arbitrum block explorer.

7. Integrate Your Smart Contract With a Frontend

Creating and seeing your smart contract being published to Etherscan isn't the end! You'll now need to integrate your smart contract with a frontend interface.

The tutorial will cover these steps:

  • Cloning the starter files
  • Check out the starter files
  • Read from the smart contract
  • Set up an Ethereum wallet
  • Connect MetaMask to UI
  • Implement the updateMessage function
  • Make your own dApp

Congratulations! You just developed your own simple dApp on Arbitrum! 🎉

Ever since Arbitrum's mainnet launch, a growing number of developers have been building Arbitrum smart contracts on the blockchain, and learning how to develop on Arbitrum is an important step in becoming a well-rounded Solidity developer.

Before launching your smart contract to Arbitrum's mainnet, remember to test your dapp thoroughly on testnets and consider hiring a smart contract auditing company to test your contracts for vulnerabilities.

Arbitrum is an Ethereum layer-2 blockchain that uses optimistic rollups to provide developers with greater scalability and lower gas costs than running dapps on Ethereum's base layer blockchain while benefiting from Ethereum's layer 1 security.

If you're interested in learning how to develop Arbitrum, this article will be perfect for you! In this guide, we will walk you through the steps necessary to start coding on the Arbitrum network.

What Is Arbitrum?

Arbitrum is a layer-2 optimistic rollup blockchain that helps to scale the main Ethereum chain while remaining trustlessly secure. While it is based on Ethereum's Virtual Machine (EVM), Arbitrum offers a unique design that makes it much more scalable and user-friendly than the Ethereum network.

In addition, Arbitrum smart contracts are EVM-compatible meaning they work with existing Ethereum tooling, wallets, and dapps. Arbitrum was created as one of the Ethereum scaling solutions available to create low cost smart contracts and to address long transaction times.

The Arbitrum Virtual Machine, which runs on ArbOS, helps act as a record-keeper, traffic cop, and enforcer for the execution of smart contracts on the Arbitrum chain.

How to Start Developing on Arbitrum

Before you start developing on Arbitrum, it is important to understand how the blockchain works and configure a few prerequisites:

  1. Hardhat
  2. An Alchemy account
  3. A web3 wallet (E.g. MetaMask, Apex, etc.)

1. Understand How Arbitrum Works

Before you start developing on Arbitrum, it's important to have a good understanding of how the platform works. You can read the Arbitrum Whitepaper to learn more about the technical details.

According to Offchain Labs, the team who created and maintains Arbitrum, the architecture of Arbitrum is as follows: Users and service providers are part of the off-chain on the left, and the Arbitrum system consists of Layer 1 and Layer 2 on the right.

Arbitrum is a layer-2 rollup solution (green) that sits on top of Layer-1 Ethereum chain (orange).

Arbitrum architecture diagram from Offchain labs.
Source: Offchain Labs

In addition, the Arbitrum team has created several resources to help developers get started, including an overview of the platform and a step-by-step guide to creating your first smart contract.

2. Download Hardhat (Integrated Development Environment)

There are two ways to develop on Arbitrum: using the online IDE or by setting up a local development environment. Either way, you’ll need to choose and configure an IDE for Solidity development before you start.

For this article we will build with Hardhat, a local development environment. Once you're done with installing Hardhat, create a Hardhat project.

3. Create An Arbitrum App on Alchemy

To deploy a smart contract, you will need an Arbitrum RPC node. Fortunately, you don't need to run your own Arbitrum node, instead you can sign up for Alchemy for free and create an app on the Arbitrum-Goerli testnet.

Once you're signed up, here's what to do:

  1. Click on the Dashboard
  2. Click "Create App"
  3. Pick a name for your app
  4. Select the Arbitrum Nitro Goerli testnet.
  5. Then click "Create App"

Your app should appear in the Alchemy Dashboard.

4. Get Fake ETH from the Goerli Faucet

In order to interact with Arbitrum contracts on the Arbitrum-Goerli testnet, you'll need some test ETH. The easiest way to get Goerli ETH is from a faucet.

  1. Add Arbitrum to MetaMask
  2. Go to the Goerli faucet
  3. ‍Enter your Ethereum address
  4. You should receive Goerli ETH in your MetaMask wallet in a few minutes

To check if you've received the ETH from the faucet, go into the MetaMask settings, and under Advanced, select "Show test networks".

If you're using the Goerli faucet that's compatible with the Arbitrum Nitro Testnet, here is how to bridge Goerli tokens to Arbitrum Nitro.

5. Write, Compile, and Deploy Your Smart Contract

At this point, you will be able to start writing your smart contract. Follow the steps in the Alchemy docs to build a simple "Hello World" smart contract. You can also follow this Hello World video tutorial on how to write, compile, and deploy the "Hello World" smart contract. This github repo contains all the scripts covered in the video.

Once you're done writing your contract, compile it using Hardhat, connect to an Ethereum client (Ganache or Geth), and use the hardhat deploy command to deploy your contract.

If you want more inspiration, be sure to take a look at the Offchain Labs GitHub monorepo for demo examples such as a Pet Shop dapp and an Election dapp.

6. Interact With and Submit Your Smart Contract to Etherscan

After you've created your smart contract, you'll need to learn how to interact with a smart contract for it to be useful! Watch this video tutorial on how to read and interact with a smart contract.

The video will run you through the following steps:

  • Create an interact.js file
  • Update your env. file
  • Grab your contract ABI
  • Create a contract instance
  • Read and update the init message

Once done, you're ready to publish your contract to Etherscan. Watch this video to learn how to verify your contract on Etherscan.

This is done by:

  • Installing the hardhat-etherscan plugin
  • Changing the Etherscan config options
  • Verifying the smart contract on Etherscan

All transactions on Arbitrum can be seen on the Arbitrum block explorer.

7. Integrate Your Smart Contract With a Frontend

Creating and seeing your smart contract being published to Etherscan isn't the end! You'll now need to integrate your smart contract with a frontend interface.

The tutorial will cover these steps:

  • Cloning the starter files
  • Check out the starter files
  • Read from the smart contract
  • Set up an Ethereum wallet
  • Connect MetaMask to UI
  • Implement the updateMessage function
  • Make your own dApp

Congratulations! You just developed your own simple dApp on Arbitrum! 🎉

Ever since Arbitrum's mainnet launch, a growing number of developers have been building Arbitrum smart contracts on the blockchain, and learning how to develop on Arbitrum is an important step in becoming a well-rounded Solidity developer.

Before launching your smart contract to Arbitrum's mainnet, remember to test your dapp thoroughly on testnets and consider hiring a smart contract auditing company to test your contracts for vulnerabilities.

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