Network
Launch Date
Consensus
Note
Sepolia
Oct 2021
PoW
Like-for-like representation of Ethereum
Görli
Jan 2019
PoA
Proof-of-Authority
Kiln
Mar 2022
PoS
Post-Merge (for ETH2), shadow fork of the mainnet
Kintsugi
Dec 2021
PoS
DEPRECATED, use Kiln; post-Merge (for ETH2)
Ropsten
Nov 2016
PoW
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia; the Merge to happen on Jun 8, 2022
Rinkeby
Apr 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Görli and Görli Faucet
Kovan
Mar 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia or Görli
List of active and deprecated Ethereum testnets, including Kintsugi.
Features
Optimistic rollup 
ZK-rollup 
Proof
Uses fraud proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Uses validity (zero-knowledge) proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Capital efficiency
Requires waiting through a 1-week delay (dispute period) before withdrawing funds. 
Users can withdraw funds immediately because validity proofs provide incontrovertible evidence of the authenticity of off-chain transactions. 
Data compression
Publishes full transaction data as calldata to Ethereum Mainnet, which increases rollup costs. 
Doesn't need to publish transaction data on Ethereum because ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs already guarantee the accuracy of the rollup state. 
EVM compatibility
Uses a simulation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which allows it to run arbitrary logic and support smart contracts. 
Doesn't widely support EVM computation, although a few EVM-compatible ZK-rollups have appeared. 
Rollup costs
Reduces costs since it publishes minimal data on Ethereum and doesn't have to post proofs for transactions, except in special circumstances. 
Faces higher overhead from costs involved in generating and verifying proofs for every transaction block. ZK proofs require specialized, expensive hardware to create and have high on-chain verification costs. 
Trust assumptions
Doesn't require a trusted setup. 
Requires a trusted setup to work. 
Liveness requirements
Verifiers are needed to keep tabs on the actual rollup state and the one referenced in the state root to detect fraud. 
Users don't need someone to watch the L2 chain to detect fraud. 
Security properties 
Relies on cryptoeconomic incentives to assure users of rollup security. 
Relies on cryptographic guarantees for security. 
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curl 
https://release.solana.com/v1.10.32/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe 
--output 
C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe 
--create-dirs
Testnets
SEPOLIA TESTNET OVERVIEW

What is the Sepolia testnet?

What Makes Sepolia Testnet Unique and How to Get Sepolia ETH
Last Updated:
June 7, 2022

Sepolia is a proof-of-work (PoW) testnet where dApp developers can test their applications. What differentiates Sepolia from other Ethereum testnets is that most of its PoW validators are public validators. Combined with Sepolia being a testnet, this creates the chance that validators will stop validating and the chain will fail to finalize, making Sepolia one of the best testnets to see how decentralized applications will perform under the harshest conditions.

To begin using Sepolia, you must first head to the Sepolia Faucet to collect Sepolia ETH, the testnet’s token. Once the testnet ETH is sent to your wallet, you can begin testing your nodes and smart contracts on Sepolia.

Note: Alchemy does not support the Sepolia testnet. For a complete list of testnets supported by Alchemy, refer to our official documentation.

What is the Sepolia Testnet?

Sepolia is a PoW tesnet created in October 2021 by Ethereum core developers and maintained ever since. After the Ropsten testnet reaches a Terminal Total Difficulty (TTD) of 50000000000000000 and transitions to proof-of-stake, which is expected to occur between June 8th and June 9th, 2022, Sepolia and the Goerli testnet will move from a proof-of-work to a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism to mimic the Ethereum mainnet.

According to Ethereum core developer, Tim Beiko, once Ropsten, Goerli and Sepolia have forked and stabilized the development team will be able to finalize the date to complete the Ethereum Merge.

Testnets are blockchains designed to mimic the operating environment of a ‘mainnet’ but exist on a separate ledger. These shadow forks enable core developers to test the merge, and help application developers test how their apps will perform during and after the Ethereum mainnet merge without financial consequences by testing in Ethereum’s production environment.

How is Sepolia different from other testnets?

The difference between Sepolia and other Ethereum testnets is that Sepolia is a closed, permissioned testnet in contrast to public testnets like Goerli.

These validators who have not undergone any background check or capability testing by network participants, could possibly fail to have the necessary hardware and software to stay connected to the testnet at all times, and hence cause the chain to fail to finalize. 

Over the long-term future the Ethereum team plans on only maintaining the Goerli testnet and maintaining the Sepolia testnet, who’s chain ID is 11155111.

How to get Sepolia testnet ETH?

Sepolia ETH can be obtained from a Sepolia testnet faucet, that allows anyone to send a small amount of fake Sepolia ETH to their wallet. Sepolia ETH is the currency used to pay to complete transactions on the Sepolia testnet, similar to how ETH is used to pay for computation on the Ethereum’s mainnet which is also a Proof-of-Work chain before the merge.

  1. Head to the Sepolia FaucETH - https://faucet.sepolia.dev
  2. Enter your wallet address or ENS name into the box. 
  3. Fill out the captcha
  4. Click ‘Request funds’

A popup will display ‘Transaction sent’ with the amount of Sepolia ETH deposited to your wallet.

With your Sepolia ETH, you can now begin running smart contracts on the Sepolia testnet.

To view the date and time, the transaction fee, the gas burnt, and other transaction details, you can look up your transaction hash on Otterscan, a Sepolia testnet block explorer.

Additional Reading and Resources on the Sepolia Testnet

The best resources about the Sepolia testnet and upcoming Ethereum testnet changes include Ethereum’s official blog, Tim Beiko’s AllCoreDevs Updates, the Week in Ethereum Substack newsletter, and this big list of resources about the Merge.

With changes happening to test the Ethereum Merge, it’s important to follow the right sources to ensure you have the most up to date information about the Sepolia testnet and the upcoming testnet merges.

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Testnets
SEPOLIA TESTNET OVERVIEW

What is the Sepolia testnet?

What Makes Sepolia Testnet Unique and How to Get Sepolia ETH
Last Updated:
June 7, 2022
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Sepolia is a proof-of-work (PoW) testnet where dApp developers can test their applications. What differentiates Sepolia from other Ethereum testnets is that most of its PoW validators are public validators. Combined with Sepolia being a testnet, this creates the chance that validators will stop validating and the chain will fail to finalize, making Sepolia one of the best testnets to see how decentralized applications will perform under the harshest conditions.

To begin using Sepolia, you must first head to the Sepolia Faucet to collect Sepolia ETH, the testnet’s token. Once the testnet ETH is sent to your wallet, you can begin testing your nodes and smart contracts on Sepolia.

Note: Alchemy does not support the Sepolia testnet. For a complete list of testnets supported by Alchemy, refer to our official documentation.

What is the Sepolia Testnet?

Sepolia is a PoW tesnet created in October 2021 by Ethereum core developers and maintained ever since. After the Ropsten testnet reaches a Terminal Total Difficulty (TTD) of 50000000000000000 and transitions to proof-of-stake, which is expected to occur between June 8th and June 9th, 2022, Sepolia and the Goerli testnet will move from a proof-of-work to a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism to mimic the Ethereum mainnet.

According to Ethereum core developer, Tim Beiko, once Ropsten, Goerli and Sepolia have forked and stabilized the development team will be able to finalize the date to complete the Ethereum Merge.

Testnets are blockchains designed to mimic the operating environment of a ‘mainnet’ but exist on a separate ledger. These shadow forks enable core developers to test the merge, and help application developers test how their apps will perform during and after the Ethereum mainnet merge without financial consequences by testing in Ethereum’s production environment.

How is Sepolia different from other testnets?

The difference between Sepolia and other Ethereum testnets is that Sepolia is a closed, permissioned testnet in contrast to public testnets like Goerli.

These validators who have not undergone any background check or capability testing by network participants, could possibly fail to have the necessary hardware and software to stay connected to the testnet at all times, and hence cause the chain to fail to finalize. 

Over the long-term future the Ethereum team plans on only maintaining the Goerli testnet and maintaining the Sepolia testnet, who’s chain ID is 11155111.

How to get Sepolia testnet ETH?

Sepolia ETH can be obtained from a Sepolia testnet faucet, that allows anyone to send a small amount of fake Sepolia ETH to their wallet. Sepolia ETH is the currency used to pay to complete transactions on the Sepolia testnet, similar to how ETH is used to pay for computation on the Ethereum’s mainnet which is also a Proof-of-Work chain before the merge.

  1. Head to the Sepolia FaucETH - https://faucet.sepolia.dev
  2. Enter your wallet address or ENS name into the box. 
  3. Fill out the captcha
  4. Click ‘Request funds’

A popup will display ‘Transaction sent’ with the amount of Sepolia ETH deposited to your wallet.

With your Sepolia ETH, you can now begin running smart contracts on the Sepolia testnet.

To view the date and time, the transaction fee, the gas burnt, and other transaction details, you can look up your transaction hash on Otterscan, a Sepolia testnet block explorer.

Additional Reading and Resources on the Sepolia Testnet

The best resources about the Sepolia testnet and upcoming Ethereum testnet changes include Ethereum’s official blog, Tim Beiko’s AllCoreDevs Updates, the Week in Ethereum Substack newsletter, and this big list of resources about the Merge.

With changes happening to test the Ethereum Merge, it’s important to follow the right sources to ensure you have the most up to date information about the Sepolia testnet and the upcoming testnet merges.

Sepolia is a proof-of-work (PoW) testnet where dApp developers can test their applications. What differentiates Sepolia from other Ethereum testnets is that most of its PoW validators are public validators. Combined with Sepolia being a testnet, this creates the chance that validators will stop validating and the chain will fail to finalize, making Sepolia one of the best testnets to see how decentralized applications will perform under the harshest conditions.

To begin using Sepolia, you must first head to the Sepolia Faucet to collect Sepolia ETH, the testnet’s token. Once the testnet ETH is sent to your wallet, you can begin testing your nodes and smart contracts on Sepolia.

Note: Alchemy does not support the Sepolia testnet. For a complete list of testnets supported by Alchemy, refer to our official documentation.

What is the Sepolia Testnet?

Sepolia is a PoW tesnet created in October 2021 by Ethereum core developers and maintained ever since. After the Ropsten testnet reaches a Terminal Total Difficulty (TTD) of 50000000000000000 and transitions to proof-of-stake, which is expected to occur between June 8th and June 9th, 2022, Sepolia and the Goerli testnet will move from a proof-of-work to a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism to mimic the Ethereum mainnet.

According to Ethereum core developer, Tim Beiko, once Ropsten, Goerli and Sepolia have forked and stabilized the development team will be able to finalize the date to complete the Ethereum Merge.

Testnets are blockchains designed to mimic the operating environment of a ‘mainnet’ but exist on a separate ledger. These shadow forks enable core developers to test the merge, and help application developers test how their apps will perform during and after the Ethereum mainnet merge without financial consequences by testing in Ethereum’s production environment.

How is Sepolia different from other testnets?

The difference between Sepolia and other Ethereum testnets is that Sepolia is a closed, permissioned testnet in contrast to public testnets like Goerli.

These validators who have not undergone any background check or capability testing by network participants, could possibly fail to have the necessary hardware and software to stay connected to the testnet at all times, and hence cause the chain to fail to finalize. 

Over the long-term future the Ethereum team plans on only maintaining the Goerli testnet and maintaining the Sepolia testnet, who’s chain ID is 11155111.

How to get Sepolia testnet ETH?

Sepolia ETH can be obtained from a Sepolia testnet faucet, that allows anyone to send a small amount of fake Sepolia ETH to their wallet. Sepolia ETH is the currency used to pay to complete transactions on the Sepolia testnet, similar to how ETH is used to pay for computation on the Ethereum’s mainnet which is also a Proof-of-Work chain before the merge.

  1. Head to the Sepolia FaucETH - https://faucet.sepolia.dev
  2. Enter your wallet address or ENS name into the box. 
  3. Fill out the captcha
  4. Click ‘Request funds’

A popup will display ‘Transaction sent’ with the amount of Sepolia ETH deposited to your wallet.

With your Sepolia ETH, you can now begin running smart contracts on the Sepolia testnet.

To view the date and time, the transaction fee, the gas burnt, and other transaction details, you can look up your transaction hash on Otterscan, a Sepolia testnet block explorer.

Additional Reading and Resources on the Sepolia Testnet

The best resources about the Sepolia testnet and upcoming Ethereum testnet changes include Ethereum’s official blog, Tim Beiko’s AllCoreDevs Updates, the Week in Ethereum Substack newsletter, and this big list of resources about the Merge.

With changes happening to test the Ethereum Merge, it’s important to follow the right sources to ensure you have the most up to date information about the Sepolia testnet and the upcoming testnet merges.

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