Network
Launch Date
Consensus
Note
Sepolia
Oct 2021
PoW
Like-for-like representation of Ethereum
Görli
Jan 2019
PoA
Proof-of-Authority
Kiln
Mar 2022
PoS
Post-Merge (for ETH2), shadow fork of the mainnet
Kintsugi
Dec 2021
PoS
DEPRECATED, use Kiln; post-Merge (for ETH2)
Ropsten
Nov 2016
PoW
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia; the Merge to happen on Jun 8, 2022
Rinkeby
Apr 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Görli and Görli Faucet
Kovan
Mar 2017
PoA
DEPRECATED, use Sepolia or Görli
List of active and deprecated Ethereum testnets, including Kintsugi.
Features
Optimistic rollup 
ZK-rollup 
Proof
Uses fraud proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Uses validity (zero-knowledge) proofs to prove transaction validity. 
Capital efficiency
Requires waiting through a 1-week delay (dispute period) before withdrawing funds. 
Users can withdraw funds immediately because validity proofs provide incontrovertible evidence of the authenticity of off-chain transactions. 
Data compression
Publishes full transaction data as calldata to Ethereum Mainnet, which increases rollup costs. 
Doesn't need to publish transaction data on Ethereum because ZK-SNARKs and ZK-STARKs already guarantee the accuracy of the rollup state. 
EVM compatibility
Uses a simulation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which allows it to run arbitrary logic and support smart contracts. 
Doesn't widely support EVM computation, although a few EVM-compatible ZK-rollups have appeared. 
Rollup costs
Reduces costs since it publishes minimal data on Ethereum and doesn't have to post proofs for transactions, except in special circumstances. 
Faces higher overhead from costs involved in generating and verifying proofs for every transaction block. ZK proofs require specialized, expensive hardware to create and have high on-chain verification costs. 
Trust assumptions
Doesn't require a trusted setup. 
Requires a trusted setup to work. 
Liveness requirements
Verifiers are needed to keep tabs on the actual rollup state and the one referenced in the state root to detect fraud. 
Users don't need someone to watch the L2 chain to detect fraud. 
Security properties 
Relies on cryptoeconomic incentives to assure users of rollup security. 
Relies on cryptographic guarantees for security. 
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curl 
https://release.solana.com/v1.10.32/solana-install-init-x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.exe 
--output 
C:\solana-install-tmp\solana-install-init.exe 
--create-dirs
Testnets
PRATER TESTNET OVERVIEW

What is the Prater testnet?

Learn about the Prater Testnet and it's Upcoming Merge with Goerli
Last Updated:
June 21, 2022

This article covers the Prater testnet and how developers can use it to test and refine their smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. 

The Prater testnet allows developers to test node operations such as adding and removing validators, migrating between clients and performing upgrades and backups. 

The Prater testnet is unique because it involves a proof-of-stake testing environment rather than proof-of-work. Because the mainnet Ethereum blockchain is planning to merge with the Beacon Chain to switch to a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism, the Prater testnet will serve as a useful environment for developers to test their node configurations and smart contracts. 

Generally, testnets are alternative blockchains for developers to run their smart contracts in a sandbox environment to detect bugs and refine their codebase. 

To access the Prater testnet and make validator deposits, you can use the Prater launchpad in combination with the Goerli test network, which will be discussed further in this article. 

Overall, the Prater testnet is a great place for developers to test their validators particularly regarding node operations, to ensure a smooth deployment onto Ethereum's planned proof-of-stake mainnet migration in 2022. 

What is the Prater testnet?

The Prater testnet, a Proof-of-Stake beacon chain, which was first deployed in March 2021by the Ethereum Foundation, is a testnet that specializes in testing node validator actions, particularly those that simulate staking. 

A testnet is a sandbox environment that mimics the blockchain mainnet (in this case, the Ethereum mainnet), to allow developers to test their node configurations and smart contract code without threat of spending real ETH or disrupting the production environment. 

To understand the Prater testnet, we must first understand the basics of consensus and validation on Ethereum.

A validator is an entity that participates in the process of achieving consensus on the Ethereum protocol–effectively, they vote on whether a new block should be added to the blockchain. 

The more Ethereum a validator has staked, the higher the weight of their vote. The minimum weight for an Ethereum–and Prater–validator is 32 ETH, and this ETH is staked to ensure financial consequences if validators behave improperly. 

Additionally, to ensure that the validation of nodes is not taken over by a large party and remains decentralized, staking more than 32 ETH does not add to the weight of one’s consensus vote. The Prater testnet currently has 328,681 active validators.

Prater and Goerli Merge

In preparation for the Ethereum merge, which has Ethereum migrating from a Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to a Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism, the Consensus Layer (CL) Proof-of-Stake testnet, Prater, will be merged with the Goerli, the Execution Layer (EL), Proof-of-Authority testnet.

Because Prater simulates a Proof-of-Stake, Consensus Layer environment, independent stakers and validators should use Prater to test their CL client configurations ahead of the official Prater merge with Goerli.

If you are not an independent staker or node operator, and simply want to test dApps in a testnet, it is recommended that you use the Goerli testnet because it will be the primary testnet after the Ethereum Merge, with all others - Kovan, Ropsten, and Rinkeby - being deprecated.

How to Get Prater Testnet ETH

Because Prater will be merged with the Goerli testnet, Prater accepts Goerli ETH (goETH). You can get Prater testnet ETH from a Goerli faucet by following this simple guide on how to request Goerli ETH from a faucet.

If you need larger quantities of Goerli ETH, please reach out to the Alchemy support team.

Prater Testnet Alternatives

Alternative testnets to Prater that might be relevant to your blockchain application or Ethereum Merge planning include the Sepolia testnet which uses a Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism that will replace the now merged proof-of-work testnet, Ropsten.

For more information regarding the Ethereum Merge timeline, review Alchemy’s resources, and explore the Prater launchpad website for overviews, checklists, and FAQs.

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Testnets
PRATER TESTNET OVERVIEW

What is the Prater testnet?

Learn about the Prater Testnet and it's Upcoming Merge with Goerli
Last Updated:
June 21, 2022
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This article covers the Prater testnet and how developers can use it to test and refine their smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. 

The Prater testnet allows developers to test node operations such as adding and removing validators, migrating between clients and performing upgrades and backups. 

The Prater testnet is unique because it involves a proof-of-stake testing environment rather than proof-of-work. Because the mainnet Ethereum blockchain is planning to merge with the Beacon Chain to switch to a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism, the Prater testnet will serve as a useful environment for developers to test their node configurations and smart contracts. 

Generally, testnets are alternative blockchains for developers to run their smart contracts in a sandbox environment to detect bugs and refine their codebase. 

To access the Prater testnet and make validator deposits, you can use the Prater launchpad in combination with the Goerli test network, which will be discussed further in this article. 

Overall, the Prater testnet is a great place for developers to test their validators particularly regarding node operations, to ensure a smooth deployment onto Ethereum's planned proof-of-stake mainnet migration in 2022. 

What is the Prater testnet?

The Prater testnet, a Proof-of-Stake beacon chain, which was first deployed in March 2021by the Ethereum Foundation, is a testnet that specializes in testing node validator actions, particularly those that simulate staking. 

A testnet is a sandbox environment that mimics the blockchain mainnet (in this case, the Ethereum mainnet), to allow developers to test their node configurations and smart contract code without threat of spending real ETH or disrupting the production environment. 

To understand the Prater testnet, we must first understand the basics of consensus and validation on Ethereum.

A validator is an entity that participates in the process of achieving consensus on the Ethereum protocol–effectively, they vote on whether a new block should be added to the blockchain. 

The more Ethereum a validator has staked, the higher the weight of their vote. The minimum weight for an Ethereum–and Prater–validator is 32 ETH, and this ETH is staked to ensure financial consequences if validators behave improperly. 

Additionally, to ensure that the validation of nodes is not taken over by a large party and remains decentralized, staking more than 32 ETH does not add to the weight of one’s consensus vote. The Prater testnet currently has 328,681 active validators.

Prater and Goerli Merge

In preparation for the Ethereum merge, which has Ethereum migrating from a Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to a Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism, the Consensus Layer (CL) Proof-of-Stake testnet, Prater, will be merged with the Goerli, the Execution Layer (EL), Proof-of-Authority testnet.

Because Prater simulates a Proof-of-Stake, Consensus Layer environment, independent stakers and validators should use Prater to test their CL client configurations ahead of the official Prater merge with Goerli.

If you are not an independent staker or node operator, and simply want to test dApps in a testnet, it is recommended that you use the Goerli testnet because it will be the primary testnet after the Ethereum Merge, with all others - Kovan, Ropsten, and Rinkeby - being deprecated.

How to Get Prater Testnet ETH

Because Prater will be merged with the Goerli testnet, Prater accepts Goerli ETH (goETH). You can get Prater testnet ETH from a Goerli faucet by following this simple guide on how to request Goerli ETH from a faucet.

If you need larger quantities of Goerli ETH, please reach out to the Alchemy support team.

Prater Testnet Alternatives

Alternative testnets to Prater that might be relevant to your blockchain application or Ethereum Merge planning include the Sepolia testnet which uses a Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism that will replace the now merged proof-of-work testnet, Ropsten.

For more information regarding the Ethereum Merge timeline, review Alchemy’s resources, and explore the Prater launchpad website for overviews, checklists, and FAQs.

This article covers the Prater testnet and how developers can use it to test and refine their smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. 

The Prater testnet allows developers to test node operations such as adding and removing validators, migrating between clients and performing upgrades and backups. 

The Prater testnet is unique because it involves a proof-of-stake testing environment rather than proof-of-work. Because the mainnet Ethereum blockchain is planning to merge with the Beacon Chain to switch to a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism, the Prater testnet will serve as a useful environment for developers to test their node configurations and smart contracts. 

Generally, testnets are alternative blockchains for developers to run their smart contracts in a sandbox environment to detect bugs and refine their codebase. 

To access the Prater testnet and make validator deposits, you can use the Prater launchpad in combination with the Goerli test network, which will be discussed further in this article. 

Overall, the Prater testnet is a great place for developers to test their validators particularly regarding node operations, to ensure a smooth deployment onto Ethereum's planned proof-of-stake mainnet migration in 2022. 

What is the Prater testnet?

The Prater testnet, a Proof-of-Stake beacon chain, which was first deployed in March 2021by the Ethereum Foundation, is a testnet that specializes in testing node validator actions, particularly those that simulate staking. 

A testnet is a sandbox environment that mimics the blockchain mainnet (in this case, the Ethereum mainnet), to allow developers to test their node configurations and smart contract code without threat of spending real ETH or disrupting the production environment. 

To understand the Prater testnet, we must first understand the basics of consensus and validation on Ethereum.

A validator is an entity that participates in the process of achieving consensus on the Ethereum protocol–effectively, they vote on whether a new block should be added to the blockchain. 

The more Ethereum a validator has staked, the higher the weight of their vote. The minimum weight for an Ethereum–and Prater–validator is 32 ETH, and this ETH is staked to ensure financial consequences if validators behave improperly. 

Additionally, to ensure that the validation of nodes is not taken over by a large party and remains decentralized, staking more than 32 ETH does not add to the weight of one’s consensus vote. The Prater testnet currently has 328,681 active validators.

Prater and Goerli Merge

In preparation for the Ethereum merge, which has Ethereum migrating from a Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to a Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism, the Consensus Layer (CL) Proof-of-Stake testnet, Prater, will be merged with the Goerli, the Execution Layer (EL), Proof-of-Authority testnet.

Because Prater simulates a Proof-of-Stake, Consensus Layer environment, independent stakers and validators should use Prater to test their CL client configurations ahead of the official Prater merge with Goerli.

If you are not an independent staker or node operator, and simply want to test dApps in a testnet, it is recommended that you use the Goerli testnet because it will be the primary testnet after the Ethereum Merge, with all others - Kovan, Ropsten, and Rinkeby - being deprecated.

How to Get Prater Testnet ETH

Because Prater will be merged with the Goerli testnet, Prater accepts Goerli ETH (goETH). You can get Prater testnet ETH from a Goerli faucet by following this simple guide on how to request Goerli ETH from a faucet.

If you need larger quantities of Goerli ETH, please reach out to the Alchemy support team.

Prater Testnet Alternatives

Alternative testnets to Prater that might be relevant to your blockchain application or Ethereum Merge planning include the Sepolia testnet which uses a Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism that will replace the now merged proof-of-work testnet, Ropsten.

For more information regarding the Ethereum Merge timeline, review Alchemy’s resources, and explore the Prater launchpad website for overviews, checklists, and FAQs.

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