Read the latest technical articles from Alchemy engineers.
Smart Accounts Adoption Accelerated in Q4 2023
ERC-4337 smart account adoption saw major growth in the fourth quarter of 2024, surpassing 1 million total deployed accounts!
Smart Accounts Take Off in Q3 (ERC-4337 Statistics)
Analyze the evolution of ERC-4337 user behavior on Ethereum, Arbitrum, Optimism and Polygon.
How User Operation Fees are Estimated and Charged
Learn how bundlers are incentivized, how bundlers estimate user operation gas fees, and how senders estimate user op fees on Arbitrum and Optimism.
ERC-4337 Gas Estimation for L2s and Signature Aggregators
Learn how Alchemy's ERC-4337 Bundler handles gas estimation for gas fees that are not metered by the entry point contract including signature aggregators and layer 2 transactions including Optimism and Arbitrum.
How ERC-4337 Gas Estimation Works
Learn how Alchemy engineers developed an ERC-4337 bundler in Rust that provides accurate user operation gas estimations, and explore suggested changes to the entry point contract to make the gas estimation process easier.
ERC-4337 Dummy Signatures and Gas Token Transfers
Learn how to get preVerificationGas and verificationGasLimit fields during the user operation gas estimation process using a dummy signature and dummy paymasterAndData value.
ERC-4337 UserOperation Packing Vulnerability
On March 7th, 2023, Alchemy and members of the open source community, identified calldata decoding issues with the ERC-4337 EntryPoint contract and the example VerifyingPaymaster contract.
Account Abstraction Part 4: Aggregate Signatures
Explore ERC-4337's breakthrough with aggregate signatures. Streamline multiple user op validations using a single cryptographic signature, enhancing transaction efficiency.
Account Abstraction Part 2: Sponsoring Transactions Using Paymasters
Learn how paymasters, paymaster staking, and paymaster postOp methods enable the sponsoring of transactions according to Account Abstraction as detailed in ERC-4337.
Account Abstraction Part 3: Wallet Creation
Learn how to create and deploy smart contract wallets and counterfactual addresses with CREATE2, and about factories, which specialize in creating different kinds of wallet contracts.